ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1952
 
Earth Science cover
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN 1736-7557 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-4728 (Print)
Impact Factor (2021): 0.811
Tanzania Craton, Serengeti Plain and Eastern Rift Valley: mapping of geospatial data by scripting techniques; pp. 61–79
PDF | 10.3176/earth.2022.05

Author
Polina Lemenkova
Abstract

Cartographic visualization is a key means for the analysis of the Earth’s environmental processes. In view of the rapidly increasing multi-source data, cartographic approaches are updated accordingly. Mapping of countries characterized by complex geologic settings, such as Tanzania, requires implementation of advanced approaches. Cartographic solutions for the best visualization aim to provide elaborate content in an understandable and interoperable way in multi-disciplinary studies. This study presents such an approach by using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), R and QGIS for cartographic mapping of Tanzania, with five maps addressing the natural setting (geology, topography, geophysics) and four maps showing the geomorphometric analysis. The 2D maps and the 3D mesh model were made by the traditional Geographic Information System (GIS) and scripting approaches. The features of the geomorphometric maps (slope, aspect, hillshade, elevation) were plotted by means of R. The technical methods are illustrated by the example of scripts. The paper contributes to the regional studies of Tanzania.

References

Alphayo, S. M. and Sharma, M. P. 2018. Water quality mapping of Ruvu River in Tanzania. American Journal of Applied Scientific Research4(4), 52–59. 

Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W. 2009. ETOPO1 Global Relief Model converted to PanMap layer format. NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center, PANGAEA.

Armadillo, E., Rizzello, D., Pasqua, C., Pisani, P., Ghirotto, A., Kabaka, K. et al. 2020. Geophysical constraints on the Luhoi (Tanzania) geothermal conceptual model. Geothermics87, 101875. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2020.101875

Berry, L. and Hellen, J. 1972. Tanzania in Maps. The Geographical Journal138(4), 525–525. 
https://doi.org/10.2307/1795541

Boniface, N., Schenk, V. and Appel, P. 2014. Mesoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism in pelitic rocks of the northwestern Ubendian Belt: Implication for the extension of the Kibaran intra-continental basins to Tanzania. Precambrian Research249, 215–228. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2014.05.010

Bosworth, W. 1992. Mesozoic and early Tertiary rift tectonics in East Africa. Tectonophysics, 209(1–4), 115–137. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(92)90014-W

Bosworth, W. 1994. A model for the three-dimensional evolution of continental rift basins, north-east Africa. Geologische Rundschau83, 671–688. 
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00251067

Bosworth, W. and Maurin, A. 1993. Structure, geochronology and tectonic significance of the northern Suguta Valley (Gregory Rift), Kenya. Journal of the Geological Society150(4), 751–762.
https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.150.4.0751

Bosworth, W. and Strecker, M. R. 1997. Stress field changes in the Afro-Arabian rift system during the Miocene to Recent period. Tectonophysics278(1–4), 47–62. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(97)00094-2

Bosworth, W., Burke, K. and Strecker, M. 2000. Magma chamber elongation as an indicator of intraplate stress field orientation: “borehole breakout mechanism” and examples from the Late Pleistocene to Recent Kenya Rift Valley. In Journal of the Virtual ExplorerVol 2. J. Stress, Structure and Strain: a volume in honour of Win D. Means (Jessell, M. and Urai, J., eds).
https://doi.org/10.3809/jvirtex.2000.00008

BRGM (Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières), University of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania Geological Survey. 2004. A 2,000,000 scale geology and mineral map of Tanzania. In Proceedings of the 20th Colloquium of Africa Geology, Orleans, France, June 2–7, 2004 (Pinna, P., Muhongo, S., Mcharo, B. A., LeGoff, E., Deschamps, Y., Ralay, F. and Milesi, J. P., compliers). BRGM, Orleans.

Brewer, C. A. 2003. A transition in improving maps: the ColorBrewer example. Special issue of Cartography and Geographic Information Science30(2), 155–158.
https://doi.org/10.1559/152304003100011126

Brewer, C. A., Hatchard, G. W. and Harrower, M. A. 2003. ColorBrewer in print: a catalog of color schemes for maps. Cartography and Geographic Information Science30(1), 5–32. 
https://doi.org/10.1559/152304003100010929

Chorowicz, J. 2005. The East African Rift System. Journal of African Earth Sciences43, 379–410. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.07.019

Collins, A. S., Reddy, S. M., Buchan, C. and Mruma, A. 2004. Temporal constraints on Palaeoproterozoic eclogite for­mation and exhumation (Usagaran Orogen, Tanzania). Earth and Planetary Science Letters224(1–2), 175–192.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2004.04.027

Cooke, H. 1974. The coastal geomorphology of Tanga, Tanzania. Geographical Review64(4), 517–535. 
https://doi.org/10.2307/213707

Delvaux, D. 2001. Karoo rifting in western Tanzania: precursor of Gondwana break-up? In Contributions to Geology and Paleontology of Gondwana. In honour of Prof. Dr. Helmut Wopfner. Cologne, 111–125.

Farr, T. G. and Kobrick, M. 2000. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produces a wealth of data. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union81(48), 583–583.  
https://doi.org/10.1029/EO081i048p00583

Farr, T. G., Rosen P. A., Caro E., Crippen R., Duren R., Hensley S. et al. 2007. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Reviews of Geophysics45(2), RG2004.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2005RG000183

Fritz, H., Tenczer, V., Hauzenberger, C. A., Wallbrecher, E., Hoinkes, G., Muhongo, S. and Mogessie, A. 2005. Central Tanzanian tectonic map (CTTM): A step forward to decipher Proterozoic structural events in the East African Orogen. Tectonics24(6), TC6013. 
https://doi.org/10.1029/2005TC001796

Gauger, S., Kuhn, G., Gohl, K., Feigl, T., Lemenkova, P. and Hillenbrand, C. 2007. Swath-bathymetric mapping. Reports on Polar and Marine Research557, 38–45. 

GEBCO Compilation Group. 2020. GEBCO 2020 Grid
https://doi.org/10.5285/a29c5465-b138-234d-e053-6c86abc040b9 (accessed 2021-11-25).

Geological Survey of Tanzania. 
https://www.gst.go.tz/strategic-aims-of-geological-mapping (accessed 2021-12-13).

Gombe, K. E., Asanuma, I. and Park, J.-G. 2017. Quantification of annual urban growth of Dar es Salaam Tanzania from Landsat time series data. Advances in Remote Sensing6(3), 175–191. 
https://doi.org/10.4236/ars.2017.63013

Graniczny, M., Gogolek, W., Ploch, I. and Urban, H. 2011. Fascinating geology of Tanzania. Przeglad Geologiczny59(8), 561–565. 

Guiraud, R. and Bosworth, W. 1999. Phanerozoic geodynamic evolution of northeastern Africa and the northwestern Arabian platform. Tectonophysics315(1–4), 73–104. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00293-0

Haidutov, I. S. 1976. A greenstone belt–basement relationship in the Tanganyika shield. Geological Magazine113(1), 53–60.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800043016

Hamdun, A. and Arakaki, T. 2015. Analysis of ground level ozone and nitrogen oxides in the City of Dar es Salaam and the rural area of Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Open Journal of Air Pollution4(4), 224–238.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2015.44019

Harpum, J. R. 1970. Summary of the Geology of Tanzania. Series: Memoir (Tanzania. Mineral Resources Division), No. 1. Mineral Resources Division, Dodoma. 

Harrower, M. and Brewer, C. A. 2003. ColorBrewer.org: An online tool for selecting colour schemes for maps. The Cartographic Journal40(1), 27–37. 
https://doi.org/10.1179/000870403235002042

Hijmans, R. J. and van Etten, J. 2012. Raster: Geographic analysis and modeling with raster data. R package version 2.0-12. 
http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=raster

Höhle, J. 2021. Automated mapping of buildings through classification of DSM-based ortho-images and cartographic enhancement. International Journal of Applied Earth Observations and Geoinformation95, 102237. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2020.102237

Ijumulana, J., Mtalo, F. and Bhattacharya, P. 1997. Potential arsenic contamination in drinking water sources of Tanzania and its link with local geology. In Environmental Arsenic in a Changing World (Zhu, Y.-G., Guo, H., Bhattacharya, P. et al., eds). CRC Press, London, 62–63.
https://doi.org/10.1201/9781351046633-24

Ijumulana, J., Ligate, F., Bhattacharya, P., Mtalo, F. and Zhang. C. 2020. Spatial analysis and GIS mapping of regional hotspots and potential health risk of fluoride concentrations in groundwater of northern Tanzania. Science of the Total Environment735, 139584. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139584

James, T. C. 1967. Thermal springs in Tanzania. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy76(729), 168–174.

John, R. 2020. Flooding in informal Settlements: potentials and limits for household adaptation in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. American Journal of Climate Change9(2), 68–86.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2020.92006

Kabete, J. M., McNaughton, N. J., Groves, D. I. and Mruma, A. H. 2012a. Reconnaissance SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochro­nology of the Tanzania Craton: evidence for Neoarchean granitoid–greenstone belts in the Central Tanzania Region and the Southern East African Orogen. Precambrian Research, 216–219, 232–266. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2012.06.020

Kabete, J. M., Groves, D. I., McNaughton, N. J. and Mruma, A. H. 2012b. A new tectonic and temporal framework for the Tanzanian Shield: Implications for gold metallogeny and undiscovered endowment. Ore Geology Reviews48, 88–124. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2012.02.009

Kagya, M., Ntomola, S. J. and Mpanju, F. 1991. The source rock of the Nyasa Rift Basin and oil shows of Tanzania. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences5(1–4), 407–419. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-9547(91)90055-3

Kajato, H. 1982. Gas strike spurs search for oil in Tanzania. Oil Gas Journal123, 123–131.

Kapilima, S. 2003. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the coastal basin of Tanzania during the Mesozoic times. Tanzania Journal of Science29(1), 1–16.
https://doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v29i1.18362

Kearey, P., Klepeis, K. A. and Vine, F. J. 2009. Global Tectonics. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, NJ.

Kempen, B., Dalsgaard, S., Kaaya, A. K., Chamuya, N., Ruipérez-González, M., Pekkarinen, A., Walsh, M.G. 2019. Mapping topsoil organic carbon concentrations and stocks for Tanzania. Geoderma337, 164–180. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.09.011

Kent, P. E., Hunt, J. A. and Johnstone, D. W. 1971. Geology and Geophysics of Coastal Tanzania. Series: Geophysical Paper, No. 6. HMSO, London.

Klaučo, M., Gregorová, B., Stankov, U., Marković, V. and Lemenkova, P. 2013a. Determination of ecological sig­nificance based on geostatistical assessment: a case study from the Slovak Natura 2000 protected area. Open Geosciences5(1), 28–42.  
https://doi.org/10.2478/s13533-012-0120-0

Klaučo, M., Gregorová, B., Stankov, U., Marković, V. and Lemenkova, P. 2013b. Interpretation of landscape values, typology and quality using methods of spatial metrics for ecological planning. In Proceedings of the 54th International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”Riga, Latvia, October 1416, 2013.

Klaučo, M., Gregorová, B., Stankov, U., Marković, V. and Lemenkova, P. 2014. Landscape metrics as indicator for ecological significance: assessment of Sitno Natura 2000 sites, Slovakia. In Ecology and Environmental Protection. Proceedings of the International ConferenceMinsk, Belarus, March 19–20, 2014. BSU Press, 85–90. 

Klaučo, M., Gregorová, B., Koleda, P., Stankov, U., Marković, V. and Lemenkova, P. 2017. Land planning as a support for sustainable development based on tourism: A case study of Slovak Rural Region. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal16(2), 449–458. 
https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2017.045

Koskikala, J., Kisanga, D. and Käyhkö, N. 2020. Biophysical regions of the Southern Highlands, Tanzania: regionalization in a data scarce environment with open geospatial data and statistical methods. Journal of Maps16(2), 376–387. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2020.1761061

Koskinen, J., Leinonen, U., Vollrath, A., Ortmann, A., Lindquist, E., d’Annunzio, R., Pekkarinen, A. and Käyhkö, N. 2019. Participatory mapping of forest plantations with Open Foris and Google Earth Engine. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing148, 63–74. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.12.011

Lemenkova, P. 2011. Seagrass mapping and monitoring along the coasts of Crete, Greece. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Lemenkova, P. 2019a. Statistical analysis of the Mariana Trench geomorphology using R programming language. Geodesy and Cartography45(2), 57–84. 
https://doi.org/10.3846/gac.2019.3785

Lemenkova, P. 2019b. GMT based comparative analysis and geomorphological mapping of the Kermadec and Tonga Trenches, Southwest Pacific Ocean.Geographia Technica14(2), 39–48.
https://doi.org/10.21163/GT_2019.142.04

Lemenkova, P. 2019c. Geomorphological modelling and mapping of the Peru-Chile Trench by GMT. Polish Cartographical Review51(4), 181–194.
https://doi.org/10.2478/pcr-2019-0015

Lemenkova, P. 2019d. AWK and GNU Octave programming languages integrated with generic mapping tools for geo­morphological analysis. GeoScience Engineering65(4), 1–22. 
https://doi.org/10.35180/gse-2019-0020

Lemenkova, P. 2020a. GEBCO Gridded Bathymetric Datasets for mapping Japan Trench geomorphology by means of GMT Scripting Toolset. Geodesy and Cartography, 46(3), 98–112. 
https://doi.org/10.3846/gac.2020.11524

Lemenkova, P. 2020b. Hyperspectral vegetation indices cal­culated by Qgis using Landsat Tm image: a case study of Northern Iceland. Advanced Research in Life Sciences4(1), 70–78. 
https://doi.org/10.2478/arls-2020-0021

Lemenkova, P. 2020c. Python libraries matplotlib, seaborn and pandas for visualization geospatial datasets generated by QGIS. Scientific Annals of “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi64(1), 13–32. 

Lemenkova, P. 2020d. Using R packages ‛tmap’, ‛raster’ and ‛ggmap’ for cartographic visualization: An example of dem-based terrain modelling of Italy, Apennine Peninsula. Zbornik radova – Geografski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu68, 99–116. 
https://doi.org/10.5937/zrgfub2068099L

Lemenkova, P. 2020e. Applying automatic mapping processing by GMT to bathymetric and geophysical data: Cascadia Subduction Zone, Pacific Ocean. Journal of Environmental Geography13(3–4), 15–26. 
https://doi.org/10.2478/jengeo-2020-0008

Lemenkova, P. 2021a. Topography of the Aleutian Trench south-east off Bowers Ridge, Bering Sea, in the context of the geological development of North Pacific Ocean. Baltica34(1), 27–46.
https://doi.org/10.5200/baltica.2021.1.3

Lemenkova, P. 2021b. Geodynamic setting of Scotia Sea and its effects on geomorphology of South Sandwich Trench, Southern Ocean. Polish Polar Research42(1), 1–23. 

Lemenkova, P. 2021c. SAGA GIS for computing cultispectral vegetation indices by Landsat TM for mapping vegetation greenness. Contemporary Agriculture70(1–2), 67–75. 
https://doi.org/10.2478/contagri-2021-0011

Lemenkova, P. 2021d. The visualization of geophysical and geomorphologic data from the area of Weddell Sea by the generic mapping tools. Studia Quaternaria38(1), 19–32.

Lemenkova, P. 2021e. Mapping topographic, geophysical and gravimetry data of Pakistan – a contribution to geological understanding of Sulaiman Fold Belt and Muslim Bagh Ophiolite Complex. Geophysica56(1–2), 3–26. 

Lemenkova, P. 2021f. Dataset compilation by GRASS GIS for thematic mapping of Antarctica: Topographic surface, ice thickness, subglacial bed elevation and sediment thickness. Czech Polar Reports, 11(1), 67–85.
https://doi.org/10.5817/CPR2021-1-6

Lindh, P. and Lemenkova, P. 2021. Evaluation of different binder combinations of cement, slag and CKD for S/S treatment of TBT contaminated sediments. Acta Mechanica et Automatica15(4), 236–248.
https://doi.org/10.2478/ama-2021-0030

Maboko, M. A. H. and Basu, N. K. 1987. The geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Wami River granulite complex, central coastal Tanzania. Journal of African Earth Sciences6(6), 845–850. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/0899-5362(87)90042-X

Masalu, D. C. P. 2008. An Overview of the bathymetry and geomorphology of the Tanzania EEZ. The Open Oceanography Journal2, 28–33. 
https://doi.org/10.2174/1874252100802010028

Miller, B. W. and Doyle, M. W. 2014. Rangeland manage­ment and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania. Geomorphology214, 366–377.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.02.018

Mjili, A. S. and Mulibo, G. D. 2018. Petrophysical analysis of reservoirs rocks at Mchungwa well in Block 7 offshore, Tanzania: geological implication on the reservoir quality. Open Journal of Geology, 8, 764–780. 
https://doi.org/10.4236/ojg.2018.88045

Msabi, M. M. and Makonyo, M. 2021. Flood susceptibility mapping using GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis: A case of Dodoma region, central Tanzania. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment21, 100445. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsase.2020.100445

Mseli, Z. H., Mwegoha, W. J. and Gaduputi, S. 2021. Identification of potential groundwater recharge zones at Makutupora basin, Dodoma Tanzania. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes
https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2021.1952763

Muthoni, F. K., Bekunda, M., Hoeschle-Zeledon, I., Sseguya, H., Kizito, F., Baijukya, F. and Mruma, S. 2020. A compendium of maps on biophysical and socioeconomic context, and suitability of maize varieties and inorganic fertilizers in Tanzania. IITA, Ibadan. 

Mvile, B. N., Abu, M., Osinowo, O. O., Marobhe, I. M. and Olayinka, A. I. 2020. An overview of the geology of Tanga onshore basin: implication for hydrocarbon potential, Tanzania, East Africa. Journal of Sedimentary Environments5(3), 267–277.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s43217-020-00021-8

Mwanukuzi, P. K. 2008. Using GIS for decision making: the case of Kidunda dam in Morogoro, Tanzania.  Geographical Journal174(2), 161–164.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4959.2008.00288.x

Mwanukuzi, P. K. 2009. Impact of eucalyptus and pine grow­ing on rural livelihood: the lesson from Bukoba area, north western Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology47, 105–109. 
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.01056.x

Mwanukuzi, P. K. 2011. Impact of non livelihood based land management on land resources: the case of upland watersheds in Uporoto Mountains, South West Tanzania. Geographical Journal177(1), 27–34.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4959.2010.00362.x

NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). 2013. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Global. Distributed by OpenTopography. 
https://doi.org/10.5069/G9445JDF (accessed 2022-03-30).

Nijbroek, R. P. and Andelman, S. J. 2016. Regional suitability for agricultural intensification: a spatial analysis of the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability14(2), 231–247.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14735903.2015.1071548

OpenStreetMap contributors. https://www.openstreetmap.org (accessed 2021-12-08).

Pavlis, N. K., Holmes, S., Kenyon, S. C. and Factor, J. K. 2012. The development and evaluation of the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). Journal of Geophysical Research117, B04406.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008916

Persits, F. M., Ahlbrandt, T. S., Tuttle, M. L., Charpentier, R. R., Brownfield, M. E. and Takahashi, K. I. 1997. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields and geological provinces of Africa. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-470-A.
https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr97470A

Pinna, P., Cocherie, A., Thieblemont, D., Feybesse, J. and Lagny, P. 1996. Geodynamic evolution and metallogenic controls in the East-African Craton (Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda). Scientific and technical communications. Chronique de la Recherché Miniere525, 33–47

Pinna, P., Cocherie, A., Thieblemont, D. and Jezequel, P. 2000. The Kisii Group of western Kenya:  an end-Archaean (2.53 Ga) late-orogenic volcano-sedimentary sequence. Journal of African Earth Sciences30(1), 79–97. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-5362(00)00009-9

Pollastro, R. M., Karshbaum, A. S. and Viger, R. J. 1999. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields and geologic provinces of the Arabian Peninsula. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-470-B.
https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr97470B

QGIS.ORG Association. 2021. QGIS A Free and Open Source Geographic Information System. 
http://www.qgis.org (accessed 2021-10-15).

Quennell, A. M. 1956. 1: 2,000,000 Geological Map of Tanzania. 

Quennell, A. M., McKinley, A. C. M. and Aiken, W. G. 1956. Summary of the Geology of Tanganyika: Introduction and Stratigraphy. Part 1. Tanganyika Geological Survey Department Memoir 1. 

R Core Team. 2021. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-projectorg

RStudio Team. 2017. RStudio: Integrated Development Environment for R. RStudio, Inc., Boston, MA.  https://www.RStudio.com (accessed 2021-11-14).

Sandwell, D. T. and Smith, W. H. F. 1997. Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS 1 satellite altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(B5), 10039–10054. 
https://doi.org/10.1029/96JB03223

Sandwell, D. T., Müller, R. D., Smith, W. H. F., Garcia, E. and Francis, R. 2014. New global marine gravity model from CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 reveals buried tectonic structure. Science346(6205), 65–67.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1258213

Schenke, H. W. and Lemenkova, P. 2008. Zur Frage der Meeresboden-Kartographie: Die Nutzung von AutoTrace Digitizer für die Vektorisierung der Bathymetrischen Daten in der Petschora-See. Hydrographische Nachrichten81, 16–21.

Schweikart, J., Franke, C. and Henke, S. 2014. Atlas of health infrastructure for the Mbeya Region in Tanzania – Regional atlases as information source using geoinformation systems. Journal of Maps10(4), 620–629. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2014.908749

Scoon, R. 2018. Geology of National Parks of Central/Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Springer, Cham. 
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73785-0

Suetova, I. A., Ushakova, L. A. and Lemenkova, P. 2005. Geoinformation mapping of the Barents and Pechora Seas. Geography and Natural Resources4, 138–142.

Temple, P. H. and Rapp, A. 1972. Landslides in the Mgeta Area, Western Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography54(3–4), 157–193.
https://doi.org/10.1080/04353676.1972.11879864

Tennekes, M. 2018. tmap: Thematic maps in R. Journal of Statistical Software84(6), 1–39. 
https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v084.i06

Wessel, P, Luis, J. F., Uieda, L., Scharroo, R., Wobbe, F., Smith, W. H. F. and Tian, D. 2019. The Generic Mapping Tools version 6. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems20, 5556–5564.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GC008515

Back to Issue