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SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2022): 0.2

General information to authors

Submission, review and resubmission processes

1. Manuscripts must be submitted in the format outlined in the Instructions to authors.
2. Every manuscript is sent to at least two reviewers.
3. Once it is established that the article is likely to be accepted for publication after revision, it is returned to the corresponding author for correction.
4. The authors of accepted articles must then revise the manuscript according to the comments of the reviewers and return it to the editorial office.
5. When the manuscript has been revised it is accepted for publication, or passed for re-reviewing to reviewers for asking their opinion on the acceptability of the paper for publication.
6. After receiving the re-review(s) the editorial board of the journal makes the final decision on the acceptability of the article for publication.
7. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after the acceptance of a manuscript.

The manuscript (an electronic version in doc- or docx-format) should be sent to the Editor in Chief

All paper submissions, accepted by the editorial board, will be refereed in a double blind peer review process by at least two reviewers with expertise in the relevant subject area. The duration of the reviewing process is variable, depending on numerous factors. However, typically the entire process from the submission of the first version of the manuscript to publication takes 4 to 6 months.

instructions to authors/Style sheet


TRAMES publishes original scholarly and research papers from all fields of the humanities and social sciences. It is open for authors from any country. The editorial board gives preference to papers with a broader theoretical scope and an interdisciplinary approach.

We present several qualities that increase the chances of publication:
The scientific merit of the research is high.
The research is innovative, provocative, and likely to be influential.
The contribution of the paper is important.
The methods are sophisticated.
The paper is theory driven.
The paper is oriented for the broad general audience and is not specific and/or local case study.
The topic is new for the journal, i.e. articles on similar topics have not been issued in TRAMES in recent years.

We do not publish manuscripts that are not considered for the broad general audience and that are specific and/or local case studies or adaptations/localizations of methods. TRAMES will not publish studies where the research subjects are kindergarten, primary and/or secondary school children and/or university students, and their teachers, instructors, and parents. TRAMES does not publish specific Covid-19, pandemic and post-pandemic reports, essays and manuscripts on tourism, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI or B&I), local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), emotional intelligence (EI), language and literature learning or teaching, language proficiency examination systems, English or any other language as a second or foreign language (all ESL- and EFL-type studies), and activities of the Confucius Institute or any similar language teaching and examining institution.
Furthermore, the rejection rate at TRAMES has steadily climbed to 94%, meaning that the editors of TRAMES have to be very selective.

The authors of TRAMES should follow the good practices of ethics and research integrity.

The authors should follow the Ethical Codes for Scientists, e.g. the “Code of Ethics of Estonian Scientists”, the Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, and/or “Estonian Code of Conduct for Research Integrity” for all aspects of the research integrity and ethics (research planning, conduct, authorship, publication, data protection, and research in developing countries and research involving indigenous people; valid principles of research ethics, standards and legal regulations, informed consents of the subjects, and the necessary permits, approvals and consent of the ethics committee etc.).


Manuscripts submitted for publication should be in English with an abstract not exceeding 150 words in the same language. Manuscripts should be in electronic format (Word for Windows) and should preferably be submitted through e-mail to the Editor in Chief ( All correspondence that can not be transmitted electronically should be sent to the editorial address. The submission of a paper is taken to imply that it has not been previously published or is not being considered for publication elsewhere or is not encumbered with pre-existing copyright.

The informed consent of the subjects and approval and consent of the ethics committee must be added to the manuscript if appropriate and necessary.


Contributions should be in Word, formatted in Times New Roman 12-point font, with 1.5-line spacing and margins at least 2.5 cm wide. Every new paragraph should begin with an automatic indent of at least 0.5 cm, not created with tabs. The text should be either left-aligned or justified.

Papers should have both a title and a shortened title (up to 50 characters) for use as a running head to be printed in the top margin. For instance, if the title is “Issues in the description of the meaning of Chinese culture”, then the shortened title could be “Meaning of Chinese culture”.

The names of the author(s), including first and last names, should follow the title, and these should be followed by the authors’ affiliations, e.g. the University of Tartu.

Each paper must have an abstract up to 150 words.

Following the abstract, 6–8 keywords should be included.

This will be followed by the main text of the paper, divided into continuously numbered sections. The main text should begin with an introduction (section 1 – 1. Introduction). If the sections are divided into subsections, then these should be numbered as, e.g., 2.1, 2.2, or also 2.2.1, but no further.

The final numbered section of the paper is a summary or conclusion(s). This may be followed by acknowledgements, not numbered, i.e. there is no number in front of the section title “Acknowledgements”. This is followed by the author’s (or authors’) postal and e-mail addresses and telephone number, followed by references. Appendices, where applicable, are included after the list of references. The references are not numbered. Appendices are numbered separately, e.g. Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.

Please refrain from using automatic formatting, using defined heading styles, and so on. Use only normal, bold, italics, and/or underlined text. There should be 0pt spacing before and after lines, i.e. normal line spacing.

If your paper contains language examples, please follow the “Leipzig glossing rules: conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses” for presenting them as shown here.

Examples may be separated from the text and numbered using Arabic numerals if they are referred to elsewhere in the text.

Tables and appendices have titles. Figures and diagrams have captions. Tables, diagrams, appendices and figures should be numbered separately, with continuous numbering for tables, continuous numbering for figures, and so on: i.e. Table 1, Figure 1, Table 2, Table 3, Figure 2, etc. Diagrams and photos are best labelled as figures.

Please insert tables and figures into the main body of text if possible. If tables and figures are presented on a separate page, then the suggested location for the table or figure should be marked in the text. All diagrams and figures should be black and white (but may include grey tones) and camera-ready. It is not the editors’ responsibility to turn colour figures into black and white.

Colour diagrams, figures, and photos are possible only for an extra charge. Footnotes (not endnotes) may be used, but should be kept to a minimum.

Footnotes (not endnotes) may be used, but should be kept to a minimum.

bibliographic references

In the text, references are made by giving in parentheses the name of the author, and, where relevant, year of publication and the page(s) referred to: (Nikolayeva 1991:24). If the author’s name is a part of the text, it can stand outside the parentheses: “Nikolayeva (1991) has argued that…”. If the work has two authors, both names are given, separated by “and”: (Prigogine and Stengers 1984). For multi-authored works, only the first name is given followed by “et al.”: (Rumelhart et al. 1986). Separate works referred to in the same parentheses should be listed in alphabetical order, separated by commas: (Nikolayeva 1991, Rumelhart et al. 1986, 1986a).

Quotations of no more than four lines are put in “double” quotation marks. Within quotations, single ‘quotes’ are used. Longer quotations without quotation marks are to be set off from the regular text with larger indentation (2 cm on a horizontal rule). The point size in this paragraph remains the same as in the manuscript.

All works referred to in the text should be listed in the reference section at the end of the article. The list of authors should be alphabetically ordered, several works by one author should be ordered chronologically. The reference list should give the full names of authors, names of publishers and page references as completely as possible. Note the punctuation marks within references to books and articles.

Journal references should cite digital object identifier (DOI) where available.

references and text in cyrillic, chinese, japanese, korean, greek, or arabic script

The references must be only in Latin script. Although the article must be in English, examples and citations in text can also be in other languages and scripts, e.g in Cyrillic, Greek, Chinese, Arabic, etc. Please use for transliteration of text and references: from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script the scientific transliteration of Cyrillic and from Mandarin Chinese to the Latin script Hanyu Pinyin.

For Romanization of Ancient and Modern Greek, Arabic, Japanese, Korean, and other non-Latin scripts you may use different transliteration systems but use one system consistently in your paper.

Examples of references:

Please use books or articles in their original language or their translations into English. Do not cite books or articles that are translations into your national or other language (except into English). If there is no translation of such texts into English, translations into major languages such as French or German should be preferred. Please use the digital object identifier (DOI) whenever possible.

(a) Books, monographs, or collective volumes and conference proceedings

This is how books should be referred on the list of references (note that the first names of authors should be spelled out in full whenever possible):

Heyd, David, ed. (1996) Toleration: an elusive virtue. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Horton, John and Susan Mendus, eds. (1985) Aspects of toleration: philosophical studies. London and New York: Methuen.

Lepajõe, Marju and Ivo Volt, eds. (2015) Constitutiones Academiae Dorpatensis (Academiae Gustavianae). Tartu: Tartu University Press.

Lotman, Juri (2018) Culture, memory, and history: essays in cultural semiotics. Ed. by Marek Tamm. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lotman, Ju. M and B. A. Uspenski (1984) The semiotics of Russian culture. Ed. by Ann Shukman. (Michigan Slavic Contributions, 11.) Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan.

Mikelsaar, Raik, ed. (2005) Diploma fundationis Academiae sive Universitatis Dorpatensis, Gustavus Adolphus, Anno 1632. Tartu: s.n.

Ney, Agneta, Henrik Williams, and Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist in cooperation with Marco Bianchi, Maja Bäckvall, Lennart Elmevik, Anne-Sofie Gräslund, Heimir Pálsson, Lasse Mårtensson, Olof Sundqvist, Daniel Sävborg, and Per Vikstrand, eds. (2009) Á austrvega. Saga and East Scandinavia: preprint papers of the 14th international saga conference, Uppsala, 9th–15th August 2009. Vol. 1. (Papers from the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, 14.) Gävle: Gävle University Press.

(b) Articles in periodicals or collective volumes

This is how to refer to articles in the reference list (note that the first names of authors should be spelled out in full whenever possible): Between two authors there is “and” (e.g. Smith, J. N. M. and E. Dawkins (1971)) and if there are three or more authors, there is a “comma” before “and” (“, and”) before the last author (e.g. Lindblom, Björn, Peter MacNeilage, and Michael Studdert-Kennedy (1984)).

Ehrlich, Freydis, Eve Rannamäe, Margot Laneman, Mari Tõrv, Valter Lang, Ester Oras, and Lembi Lõugas (2021) “In search of Estonia’s earliest chicken”. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 25, 2, 160–181. DOI:

Hight, Marc and Ulrich Norbisrath (2021) “The social nature of technology fixes”. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences 70, 2, 111–121. DOI:

Lindblom, Björn, Peter MacNeilage, and Michael Studdert-Kennedy (1984) “Self-organizing processes and the explanation of phonological universals”. In Brian Butterworth, Bernard Comrie, and Östen Dahl, eds. Explanations for languageuniversals, 181–203. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI:

Lotman, Juri (2022) “Literary criticism must be scientific”. Sign Systems Studies 50, 4, Special issue: Lotmaniana and semiotic publications from Tartu, 484–497. DOI:

Mill, John Stuart (1977) “On liberty”. In John M. Robson, ed. Collected works of John Stuart Mill: essays on politics and society. Vol. 18, 213–310, Toronto: University of Toronto Press and London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Mironova, Valentina (2022) “Nominacija ženixa i nevesty karel’skix svadebnyx runax”.[Naming of the bride and groom in Karelian wedding songs using the Kalevala metre.] Linguistica Uralica 48, 1, 27–34. DOI:

Oja, Vilja (2021) “The words for malt in Finnic languages”. Linguistica Uralica 57, 4, 241–249. DOI:

Piirimäe, Eva (2022) “Afterword: self-determination and recognition in the Baltic states,1917–1922”. Acta Historica Tallinnensia 28, 2, 330–351. DOI:

Radziki, Michael J. (1990) “Institutional dynamics, deterministic chaos and self-
organizing systems”. Journal of Economic Issues 24, 1, 57–102. Stable online address:

Sutrop, Margit and Katrin Laas-Mikko (2012) “From identity verification to behavior prediction: ethical implications of second generation biometrics”. Review of Policy Research 29, 1, 21–36. DOI:

Sutrop, Urmas (2004) “Eesti keele maailmapildist: meel, hing ja vaim”. [The worldview of the Estonian language: mind, soul, and spirit.] Mäetagused 24, 99–108. DOI:

Frog (2009) “Snorri Sturluson and oral traditions”. In Agneta Ney, Henrik Williams, and Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist in cooperation with Marco Bianchi, Maja Bäckvall, Lennart Elmevik, Anne-Sofie Gräslund, Heimir Pálsson, Lasse Mårtensson, Olof Sundqvist, Daniel Sävborg, and Per Vikstrand, eds. Á austrvega. Saga and East Scandinavia: preprint papers of the 14th international saga conference, Uppsala, 9th–15th August 2009. Vol. 1, 270–278. (Papers from the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, 14.) Gävle: Gävle University Press.

(c) Internet publications, sources without DOI or stable address, organisations’ websites

Please add to the online publication:
Available online at <http://www.full-address>. Accessed on

Pollard, C. William (2011) “Faith, spirituality, and sustainability”. C. William Pollard Papers 75. Seattle, WA: Seattle Pacific University. Available online at <>. Accessed on 06.03.2023.

Ukaz prezyidenta Ukraïny Nr 189/2021: “Pro Ricnu nacional’nu prohramu pid ehidoju Komisiï Ukraïna – NATO na 2021 rik”. [Decree of the president of Ukraine No.189/2021: “On the Annual National Program under the auspices of the NATO-Ukraine Commission for 2021”.] Available online at <>. Accessed on 06.03.2023.

Viks, Ülle (s.a.) Eesti keele avatud morfoloogiamudel. [An open model of morphology for the Estonian language.] Available online at <>. Accessed on 26.03.2021.

“UNESCO actions for Ukraine: timeline of UNESCO’s commitment to protect Ukraine’s education and heritage”. UNESCO homepage. Available online at <>. Accessed on 09.03.2023.

Journalism is a public good: world trends in freedom of expression and media development. Global report 2021/2022. UNESCO. Available online at <>. Accessed on 09.03.2023.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), OPHI (Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative) (2022) 2022 Global multidimensional poverty index (MPI): unpacking deprivation bundles to reduce multidimensional poverty. New York. Available online at <>. Accessed on 09.03.2023.

UNESCO homepage. Available online at <>. Accessed on 09.03.2023.

(d) Unpublished dissertations

Perabo, Lyonel D. (2016) Here be heathens: the supernatural image of Northern Fenno-Scandinavia in pre-modern literature. Master’s thesis. Reykjavík: Háskóli Íslands. Available online at <>. Accessed on 09.03.2023.

Perkins, Richard (1971) An edition of Floamanna saga with a study on its sources and analogues. Part 3: Commentary. Notes. Doctoral dissertation. Oxford: Christ Church, University of Oxford. Available online at <>. Accessed on 09.03.2023.

(e) Archival references are made in the form:

ACRONYM = Title/descriptive title of the file or item; Name of the fonds or collection; reference code/collection number; the name of the archive or library and its geographic location.

In the text, archival references are made in the form (ACRONYM, fonds number, folium, and recto or verso, if appropriate).


The author receives a set of proofs for correcting typesetting errors, but does not introduce new text changes, which require a new page layout. No changes may be made and no new material inserted in the text at the time of proofreading without the prior permission of the publisher. Such changes will require extra editorial work and new layout of the pages. For this reason, the publisher will charge the author galley change fee (GCF).

article publication charges

When submitting an article to the TRAMES, the corresponding author must agree to pay the publication fee and state this in the covering letter.

To partly cover the publication costs of the papers, the Estonian Academy Publishers charges a publication fee of €400 per publication of papers up to 20 printed pages. For all longer papers than 20 printed pages an additional page charge of €50 will be requested for each extra page. Authors will be asked to cover the full cost for reproduction of colour artwork at a rate of €45 for one printed page. Colour figures online will be published free of charge.

Authors will be asked to pay the standard article publication fee, the excess page fee and cost of colour illustrations after acceptance of the article. Invoice with the banking data will be sent to the corresponding author. Prompt payment is advised, as the article will not be sent to the production cycle until payment is received. Payment should be made in Euro to the bank account of the Estonian Academy Publishers.

The publication fee of articles up to 20 printed pages will be waived by the Estonian Academy of Sciences to the authors whose work was supported by Estonian granting agencies or other Estonian funding bodies.

No handling fee is applied to the manuscripts rejected by the publisher.

Standard article fee (max. 20 printed pages)400
Excess page fee (printed page)50
Colour images (printed page)45
Galley change fee (GCF) (working hour)35

The printed issue and offprints

Authors can order unlimited number of payable printed copies of the issue of the journal with their contribution from the Publisher at proof stage. See subscription information.

Payable offprints of an article (minimum 10 copies) with agreed price can be ordered from the Publisher at proof stage.