eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format | 10.3176/tr.2021.1.06

Emmanuel C. Anizoba, Anthony Onyedika Onyeume


Akpo traditional people worship God directly through a special ritual called Aja-eze bi n’ elu sacrifice of the God/King that lives in heaven. The research aims to investigate traditional worship systems among Akpo people of Anambra state Nigeria, and also examines the religious-cultural implications of traditional worship of people. The study shows that Akpo people believe in the worship of divinities, such as the sun god which is active and assists the major deity in sending the worshipers’ request to God. Other deities worshiped in Akpo include: Ala, Ancestors etc. The study adopts a qualitative phenomenological research design and descriptive method for data analysis. Personal interviews form a primary source of data collection while the secondary source includes library resources. The findings reveal that the objects of traditional worship of these deities and divinities include image status, amulet, palm fronds etc., and the traditional system of worship in Akpo also include sacrifice and offerings, pouring of libation, traditional sermon etc. aimed at establishing the co-existence between the supreme being and man. The research recommends among other things, that traditional mode of worship should be integrated into the Christian ways of worship for easy answering of prayer by the gods/God.


Adibe, G. E. (2006) The complex features of Igbo traditional Ogwu: analysis and interpretation. Onitsha: Good Mark Prints Production Inc. 

Ajayi, A. (1981) 50 Q/A on West African traditional religion. Ado Ekiti: Omolayo Standard Press and Bookshops Co. (Nig.) Ltd.

Awolalu, J. O. and P. A. Dopamu (1979) West African traditional religion. Ibadan: On, Boneje Press and Book Industries (Nig) Ltd.

Chukwuma, E. C. (2000) Festivals and marriage in Akpo. Lagos: St Jame’s Publisher. 

Ekwunife, A. N. O. (1999) Meaning and function of “ino uwa” (reincarnation) in Igbo traditional religious culture. Enugu: SNAAP Press Ltd.

Ezeanyaegbu, A. (1998) The Igbo culture and Christianity. Lagos: St. Anthony Publishers.

Ifesie, E. I. (1989) Religion at the grassroots. (Studies in Igbo Religion.) Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Ltd. 

Ilogu, E. (1985) Christianity and Igbo culture. Onitsha: University publishing Company. 

Mbiti, J. S. (1975) Introduction to African religion. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. 

Okafor, B. N. (2001) The philosophy of religion. Obosi: Olu Books and Bible Publishers.

Okafor, E. A. (1996) The history of Anambra. Onitsha: Emeka Educational Publishers.

Okolugbo, E. O. (2004) History of the Ukwuani and Ndosumili people of the Niger-Delta. Benin: Ethiope Publishing Corporation. 

Onunwa, U. R. (2005) Selected themes in African religion and culture. Umuwulu-Obosi: Pacific Publishers and Pacific Correspondence College Press Ltd. 

Onwu, E. N. (2009) Uzondu Na Eziokwu: towards an understanding of Igbo traditional religious life and philosophy. Enugu: Pillar publishers.

Onwubiko, O. A. (1991) African thought, religion and culture. Enugu: SNAAP Press Ltd. 

Onwunaeme, J. K. (2001) Christianity, culture and history in Akpo. Onitsha: Nkpor Printers.

Onyebuchi, C. O. (2010) The history of Ekeakpara and culture. Lagos: Oludare Limited. 

Onyebueke, C. B. (1996) Christianity and Anambra culture. Onitsha: Ugo Printing Press Co. 

Onyeike, G. O. (2000) The history of Akpo town. Enugu: Donklin Printers.

Quarcoopome, T. N. O. (1987) West African traditional religion. Ibadan: African Universities Press.

Ugwu, C. O. T. and L. E. Ugwueye (2004) African traditional religion. Prolegomenon, Lagos: Merit International Publications.

Back to Issue