Non-veridical perception in the form of reporting the perception of objects actually not presented has been observed also in neurotypical subjects. This phenomenon of ‘normal hallucinations’ substantially depends on expectations formed by learned contextual cues and associations as priors and is interpreted as a result of the mechanisms of predictive coding. We explored whether perceptual associations formed experimentally by inter-stimulus associations are related to the suggestibility trait of the perceivers. No significant correlation was found between Gudjonsson’s Suggestibility scale total scores and subjective clarity of the hallucinatory experiences. There was a small positive correlation between shift and the level of clarity of illusory experiences. Significant negative correlation was found between the level of suggestibility and correctness of perception of the actually present stimuli.
Alganami, F., F.Varese, G. F. Wagstaff, and R. P. Bentall (2017) “Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students”. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 22, 2 159–174.
Aru, J. and T. Bachmann (2017) “Expectation creates something out of nothing: the role of attention in iconic memory reconsidered”. Consciousness and Cognition 53, 203–210.
Aru, J., K. Tulver, and T. Bachmann (2018) “It’s all in your head: expectations create illusory perception in a dual-task setup”. Consciousness and Cognition65, 197–208.
Balcetis, E. and D. Dunning (2006) “See what you want to see: motivational influences on visual perception”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 4, 612–625.
Bang, J. W. and D. Rahnev (2017) “Stimulus expectation alters decision criterion but not sensory signal in perceptual decision making”. Scientific Reports 7, 17072.
Behrendt, R. and C. Young (2004) “Hallucinations in schizophrenia, sensory impairment, and brain disease: a unifying model”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences24, 771–830.
Brugger, P., M. Regard, T. Landis, N. Cook, D. Krebs, and J. Neiderberger (1993) “‘Meaningful’ patterns in visual noise: effects of lateral stimulation and the observer’s belief in ESP”. Psychopathology 26, 261–265.
Clark, A. (2013) “Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36, 3, 181–204.
Corlett, P. R., G. Horga, P. C. Fletcher, B. Alderson-Day, K. Schmack, and A. R. Powers III (2019) “Hallucinations and strong priors”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23, 2, 114–127.
de Lange, F. P., M. Heilbron, and P. Kok (2018) “How do expectations shape perception?”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22, 9, 764–779.
Fleming, S. M. (2020) “Awareness as inference in a higher-order state space”. Neuroscience of Consciousness 2020, 1, niz020.
Fletcher, P. C. and C. D. Frith (2009) “Perceiving is believing: a Bayesian approach to explaining the positive symptoms of schizophrenia”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10, 1, 48.
Friston, K. (2010) “The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11, 127–138.
Gilbert, C. D. and W. Li (2013) “Top-down influences on visual processing”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14, 5, 350.
Gudjonsson, G. H. (1984) “A new scale of interrogative suggestibility”. Personality and Individual Differences 5, 3, 303–314.
Gudjonsson, G. H. (1992) “Interrogative suggestibility: factor analysis of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2)”. Personality and Individual Differences13, 4, 479–481.
Gudjonsson, G. (1997) Gudjonssons Suggestibility Scale II manual. London: Psychology Press.
Jakes, S. and D. R. Hemsley (1986) “Individual differences in reaction to brief exposure to unpatterned visual stimulation”. Personality and Individual Differences 7, 121–123.
Karvelis, P., A. R Seitz., S. M. Lawrie, and P Seriès (2018) “Autistic traits, but not schizotypy, predict increased weighting of sensory information in Bayesian visual integration”. eLife 7, e34115.
Landry, M., M. Lifshitz, and A. Raz (2017) “Brain correlates of hypnosis: a systematic review and meta-analytic exploration”. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 81, 75–98.
Langner, O., R. Dotsch, G. Bijlstra, D. H. Wigboldus, S. T. Hawk, and A. D. Van Knippenberg (2010) “Presentation and validation of the Radboud Faces Database”. Cognition and Emotion 24, 8, 1377–1388.
Lawson, R. P., G. Rees, and K. J. Friston (2014) “An aberrant precision account of autism”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, 302.
Lupyan, G. (2015) “Cognitive penetrability of perception in the age of prediction: predictive systems are penetrable systems”. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6, 4, 547–569.
Lupyan, G. (2017) “Objective effects of knowledge on visual perception”. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 43, 4, 794.
Mazzoni, G., E. Rotriquenz, C. Carvalho, M. Vannucci, K. Roberts, and I. Kirsch (2009) “Suggested visual hallucinations in and out of hypnosis”. Consciousness and Cognition 18, 2, 494–499.
McGeown, W. J., A. Venneri, I. Kirsch, L. Nocetti, K. Roberts, L. Foan, and G. Mazzoni (2012) “Suggested visual hallucination without hypnosis enhances activity in visual areas of the brain”. Consciousness and Cognition 2, 1, 100–116.
Merckelbach, H. and V. van de Ven (2001) “Another White Christmas: fantasy proneness and reports of ‘hallucinatory experiences’ in undergraduate students”. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 32, 3, 137–144.
Oakley, D. A. (2008) “Hypnosis, trance and suggestion: Evidence from neuroimaging”. In M. Nash and A. Barnier, eds. The Oxford handbook of hypnosis: theory, research, and practice, 365–392. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
O’Callaghan, C., K. Kveraga, J. M. Shine, R. B. Adams, Jr, and M. Bar (2017) “Predictions penetrate perception: converging insights from brain, behaviour and disorder”. Consciousness and Cognition 47, 63–74.
Overgaard, M., J. Rote, K. Mouridsen, and T. Z. Ramsøy (2006) “Is conscious perception gradual or dichotomous? A comparison of report methodologies during a visual task”. Consciousness and Cognition 15, 4, 700–708.
Palmer, C. J., R. P. Lawson, and J. Hohwy (2017) “Bayesian approaches to autism: towards volatility, action, and behavior”. Psychological Bulletin 143, 5, 521.
Partos, T. R., S. J. Cropper, and D. Rawlings (2016) “You don’t see what I see: individual differences in the perception of meaning from visual stimuli”. PloS one 11, 3, e0150615.
Pellicano, E. D. and Burr (2012) “When the world becomes too real: a Bayesian explanation of autistic perception”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16, 10, 504–510.
Pohl, R. F., ed. (2016) Cognitive illusions: intriguing phenomena in judgement, thinking and memory. London: Psychology Press.
Polczyk, R. and T. Pasek (2006) “Types of suggestibility: relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 54, 4, 392–415.
Powers, A. R., C. Mathys, and P. R. Corlett (2017) “Pavlovian conditioning – induced hallucinations result from overweighting of perceptual priors”. Science357, 6351, 596–600.
Rungratsameetaweemans, N., S. Itthipuripat, A. Salazar, and J. T. Serences (2018) “Expectations do not alter early sensory processing during perceptual decision-making”. The Journal of Neuroscience 38, 24, 5632–5648.
Reed, P., D. Wakefield, J. Harris, J. Parry, M. Cella, and E. Tsakanikos (2008) “Seeing non-existent events: effects of environmental conditions, schizotypal symptoms, and sub-clinical characteristics”. Journal of Behavior Therapy 39, 276–291.
Rieth, C. A., K. Lee, J. Lui, J. Tian, and D. E. Huber (2011) “Faces in the mist: illusory face and letter detection”. i-Perception 2, 5, 458–476.
Seriès, P. and A. Seitz (2013) “Learning what to expect (in visual perception)”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7, 668.
Smith, P. and G. Gudjonsson (1995) “The relationship of mental disorder to suggestibility and confabulation among forensic inpatients”. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry 6, 3, 499–515.
Sterzer, P., C. Frith, and P. Petrovic (2008) “Believing is seeing: expectations alter visual awareness”. Current Biology 18, 16, R697–R698.
Stuss, D. T. and R. T. Knight (2013) Principles of frontal lobe function. Section V. Oxford University Press.
Summerfield, C. and F. P. de Lange (2014) “Expectation in perceptual decision making: neural and computational mechanisms”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience15, 745–756.
Terhune, D. B. (2015) “Discrete response patterns in the upper range of hypnotic suggestibility: a latent profile analysis”. Consciousness and Cognition 33, 334–341.
Terhune, D. B., A. Cleeremans, A. Raz, and S. J. Lynn (2017) “Hypnosis and top-down regulation of consciousness”. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews81, 59–74.
Teufel, C. and P. C. Fletcher (2020) “Forms of prediction in the nervous system”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 21, 231–242.
Tulver, K., I. Allemann, and T. Bachmann (2017) “Trait anxiety is correlated with the correct categorization of faces, but not reaction times, in a spatial attention task”. In European Conference on Visual Perception. 27–31 August 2017: Abstract Book, 173. Berlin, Germany.
Tulver, K., J. Aru, R. Rutiku, and T. Bachmann (2019) “Individual differences in the effects of priors on perception: a multi-paradigm approach”. Cognition187, 167–177.
Van de Cruys, S., K. Evers, R. Van der Hallen, L. Van Eylen, B. Boets, L. De-Wit, and J. Wagemans (2014) “Precise minds in uncertain worlds: predictive coding in autism”. Psychological Review 121, 4, 649.
Van de Cruys, S., S. Vanmarcke, I. Van de Put, and J. Wagemans (2017) “The use of prior knowledge for perceptual inference is preserved in ASD”. Clinical Psychological Science 6, 3, 382–393.
Vetik, S., K. Tulver, D. Lints, and T. Bachmann (2020) “Among the two kinds of metacognitive evaluation, only one is predictive of illusory object perception”. Perception 49, 10, 1043–1056.
Young, H. F., R. P. Bentall, P. D. Slade, and M. E. Dewey (1987) “The role of brief instructions and suggestibility in the elicitation of auditory and visual hallucinations in normal and psychiatric subjects”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 175, 1, 41–48.