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TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


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Gerli Silm, Olev Must, Karin Täht


For the validity of test results in low-stakes testing, it is important to take into account the motivation of the test-takers. Previous studies using various test-taking motivation measures have not provided coherent results. The aim of the current study was to specify the predictive power of two particular motivation indicators: self-reported effort (SRE) and response time effort (RTE). A previous high-stakes test result and gender were also added to the model to predict cognitive test performance. The sample group consisted of 280 Estonian higher education students (mean age 21.5 years (SD = 2.1), 25% male). The model was able to explain 75.6% of the variance in the test results. The predictive power of RTE was larger, but SRE supplemented the overall predictive power of the model. Using average time spent on incorrect items also proved to be a good indicator of effort.


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