eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format |

Leena Kurvet-Käosaar, Triinu Ojamaa, Aija Sakova


The idea of the special issue “Narrating Migration and Diaspora” grew out of the current situation in the world: the word ‘migration’ often accompanied by the word ‘crises’, reaches us every day via various media channels. During the last decades the world has been increasingly defined by mobility and transnationality. To interpret and analyze these processes, international scholars from different fields focus on the aspects such as sources and methods of migration and diaspora research, history of migration and remigration, memory processes, social and cultural adoption in host countries, repre­sentation of migration and diasporic life in literature as well as the rise of xenophobic populism. The introductory article provides an outline of some central perspectives and current directions of the development of research on migration and mobility, also touching upon the ways in which theoretical argumentation in the field resonates with political initiatives of the highest international level.


Akhtar, Salman (2014) Immigration and acculturation: mourning, adaptation, and the next generation. Lanham, Boulder, New York, and London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Assmann, Aleida and Sebastian Conrad (2010) “Introduction”. In Aleida Assmann and Sebastian Conrad, eds. Memory in a Global Age: discourses, practices and trajectories, 1–17. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Assmann, Jan (2008) “Communicative and cultural memory”. In Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning, eds. Cultural memory studies: an international and interdisciplinary handbook, 109–88. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Aun, Karl (1985) The political refugees: a history of the Estonians in Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Baronian, Marie-Aude, Stephan Besser, and Yolande Jansen (2007) “Introduction: diaspora and memory. Figures of displacement in contemporary literature, arts and politics”. In Marie-Aude Baronian, Stephan Besser, and Yolande Jansen, eds. Diaspora and memory: figures of displacement in contemporary literature, arts and politics, 9–16. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Basch, Linda, Nina Glick Schiller, and Cristina Szanton Blanc (1994) Nations unbound: trans­national projects, postcolonial predicaments, and deterritorialized nation-states. Basel: Gordon & Breach.

Bazileviča, Olga and Aija Sakova (2017) “Die Frage nach dem ‘Anderen’. Literatur als Spiegel und Gegenbild nationaler Identitäten am Beispiel der estnischen und lettischen Gegen­wartsliteratur”. In Reet Bender, Anna Bers, and Silke Pasewalck, eds. Zum Beispiel Estland. Das eine Land und die vielen Sprachen, 135–155. (Valerio. Das Magazin der Deutschen Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung, 19.) Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag.

Bela, Baiba (2011) “Exile as a catalyst for values”. In Eva Garda Rozenberga and Mara Zirnite, eds. Oral history: migration and local identities. Online proceedings of papers presented at the conference at the University of Latvia in Riga, June 27 –29, 2008. Riga: Institute of Philosophy and Sociology and Latvian Oral History research association Dzivesstasts, 8–22. Available online at < mediji/Oral_History_2011.pdf>. Accessed on 05.03.2019.

Bhabha, Homi (1994). The location of culture. London, New York: Routledge.

Bond, Jessica and Jessica Rapson, eds. (2014) The transcultural turn: interrogating memory between and beyond borders. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Bond, Lucy, Stef Craps, and Pieter Vermeulen (2016) “Introduction: memory on the move”. n Lucy Bond, Stef Craps, and Pieter Vermeulen, eds. Memory unbound: tracing the dynamics of memory studies, 1–29. Oxford and New York: Berghahn.

Brah, Avatar (1996) Cartographies of diaspora: contesting identities. London, New York: Routledge.

Bruneau, Michael (2010). “Diasporas, transnational spaces and communities”. In Rainer Bauböck and Thomas Faist, eds. Diaspora and transnationalism concepts, theories and methods, 35 – 49. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Cohen, Robin (2010) “Social identities and creolization”. In Kim Knott and Seán McLoughlin, eds. Diasporas: concepts, intersections, identities, 69–74. London: Zed Books.

Cohen, Robin (2018) “Four phases of diaspora studies”. In Klaus Stierstorferand and Janet Wilson, eds. The Routledge diaspora studies reader, 17–21. London and New York: Routledge.

Compact 2018 = Global compact for migration. Available online at <https://refugeesmigrants.un. org/migration-compact>. Accessed on 8.03.2019.

Craps, Stef, Astrid Erll, Paula McFetride, Ann Rigney, and Dominic Thorpe (2017) “Roundtable: moving memory”. Irish University Review 47, 1, 165–196.

Creet, Julia (2011) “Introduction: the migration of memory and memory of migration”. In Julia Creet and Andreas Kitzmann, eds. Memory and migration: multidisciplinary approaches to memory studies, 3–26. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Daukšas, Darius (2013) “Lithuanians in Norway: between ‘here’ and ‘there’”. Urbanities: The Journal of the IUAES Commission on Urban Anthropology 3, 2, 51–68.

Davoliūtė, Violeta and Tomas Balkelis (2018) “Introduction”. In Violeta Davoliūtė and Tomas Balkelis, eds. Narratives of exile and identity: Soviet deportation memoirs from the Baltic states, 1–16. Budapest: Central European University Press.

De Cesari, Chiara and Ann Rigney, eds. (2014) Transnational memory: circulation, articulation, scales. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Dirlik, Arif (2006) Global modernity: modernity in the age of global capitalism. New York: Routledge.

EASO November 2016 = “The push and pull factors of asylum-related migration: a literature review”. European Asylum Support Office. Available online at <>. Accessed on 15.02.2019.

Eesti Ekspress 2014 = “Nädala sõna: mugavuspagulane”. [World of the week: convenience migrant.] Eesti Ekspress, August 27, 2014. Available online at <>. Accessed on 19.02.2019.

Erll, Astrid (2011a) “Traumatic pasts, literary afterlives, and transcultural memory: new directions of literary and media memory studies”. Journal of Aesthetics and Culture 3, 1, 1–5.

Erll, Astrid (2011b) “Travelling memory”. Parallax 17, 4, 4–18.

Faist, Thomas (2010) “Diaspora and transnationalism: what kind of dance partners?” In Rainer Bauböck and Thomas Faist, eds. Diaspora and transnationalism: concepts, theories and methods, 9–34. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Available online at <http://>. Accessed on 5.03.2019.

Foreignerski, William B. (2018) Stroika with a London view. London: Austin Macauley Publishers.

Halbwachs, Maurice (1992) On collective memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Horm, Arvo 1960. Estonians in the free world. Stockholm: Estonian National Council.

Horm, Arvo 1961. Estonians in the free world. Stockholm: Estonian National Council.

Huyssein, Andreas (1994) Twilight memories. London and New York: Routledge.

Janassary, Anita (2015). “Diasporic individuals – a hidden peace building capacity?” In Florian Kläger and Klaus Stierstorfer, eds. Diasporic constructions of home and belonging, 147–162. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

Jürgenson, Aivar, Kaja Kumer-Haukanõmm, and Astrid Tuisk (2011) “Vabatahtlik ja sunniviisiline ränne Eesti migratsiooniloos”. [Voluntary and forced migration.] Acta Historica Tallinnensia 17, 3–15.

Kangeris, Kārlis (2006) “German plans for retreat from the Baltics: the Latvian case”. In Kaja Kumer-Haukanõmm, Tiit Rosenberg, and Tiit Tammaru, eds. Suur põgenemine 1944: Eestist lahkumine läände ja selle mõjud, 39–49. [The Great Escape in 1944: departure to the West and the aftereffects.] Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.

Kangilaski, Jaak (2005) “Fine arts”. In Vello Salo et al., eds. The White Book: losses inflicted on
the Estonian nation by occupation regimes 1940–1991
. 113–125. Tallinn: Estonian Encyclopedia Publishers.

Kangro, Bernard (1965). Eesti kirjandus vabas maailmas. Bibliograafiline ülevaade 1944–1965. [Estonian literature in the free world: bibliographical review 1944–1965.] Lund: Eesti Kirjanike Kooperatiiv.

Kangur, Piret, Karl Muru, and Ülo Tonts (1991) Väliseesti kirjandus. [The exile literature.] Tallinn: Eesti Raamat.

Karpinski, Eva, C. (2013) “Postcards from Europe: Dubravka Ugrešic´ as a transnational public intellectual, or life writing in fragments”. European Journal of Life Writing 2, 42–60.

Kasekamp, Andres (2010) A history of the Baltic states. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

Kläger, Florian and Klaus Stierstorfer (2015) “Introduction”. In Florian Kläger and Klaus Stierstorfer, eds. Diasporic constructions of home and belonging, 1–10. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Kreinin, Lea (2017) Estonians in Scotland: from isolation to transnational ways of living? Doctoral Theses. UK: University of Glasgow.

Kangeris, Kārlis (2006) “German plans for retreat from the Baltics: the Latvian case”. In Kaja Kumer-Haukanõmm, Tiit Rosenberg, and Tiit Tammaru, eds. Suur põgenemine 1944. Eestlaste põgenemine läände ja selle mõjud, 39–49. [The great exodus in 1944: the flight of Estonians to the West and its influences.] Tartu: Tartu University Press.

Kumer-Haukanõmm, Kaja (2011) “Teise maailmasõja aegne estlaste sundmigratsioon läände”. [Forced migration of Estonians to the west during World War II.] Acta Historica Tallinnensia 17, 95–109.

Laanes, Eneken and Daniele Monticelli (2018) “Battling around the exception: a stateless ‘Russian’ writer and his translation in today’s Estonia”. In Brian James Baer and Susanna Witt, eds. Translation in Russian contexts: culture, politics, identity, 321−335. New York and London: Routledge.

Lane, Thomas (2004) Victims of Stalin and Hitler: the exodus of Poles and Balts to Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Levy, Daniel and Natan Sznaider (2005) The Holocaust and memory in the Global Age. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Linhard, Tabea and Timothy H. Parsons (2019) “Introduction: how does migration take place?” In Tabea Linhard and Timothy H. Parsons, eds. Mapping Migration, Identity and Space, 1–20. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lulle, Aija and Iveta Jurkane-Hobein (2016) “‘Strangers within? Russian-speakers’ migration from Latvia to London: a study in power geometry and intersectionality’”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 43, 596–612. Available online at 10.1080/1369183X.2016.1249054. Accessed on 14.02.2018.

Marschall, Sabine (2018) “Memory, migration and travel: introduction”. In Sabine Marschall, ed. Memory, migration and travel, 123. London and New York: Routledge.

Mertelmann, Olaf and Aigi Rahi-Tamm (2009) “Soviet mass violence in Estonia revisited”. Journal of Genocide Research 11: 2–3, 307–322.

Muktupāvela, Laima (2002b) “The Champignon testament. Bloody Balts in Ireland”. Latvian Literature 2, 6–14.

Muktupāvela, Laima (2008) Champignonvermächtnis. (Translated by Berthold Forssman.) Bonn: Weidle Verlag.

Müller, Jan-Werner (2010) “On ‘European memory’: some conceptual and normative remarks”. In Małgorzata Pakier and Bo Stråth, eds. A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance, 25–37. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Nigel Dower and John Williams (2002) “Introduction”. In Nigel Dower and John Williams, eds. Global citizenship: a critical reader, 1–10. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Nora, Pierre (1989) “Between memory and history: Les Lieux de Mémoire”. Representations 26, 7–24.

Oras, Ants (1967) Estonian literature in exile. an essay with a bio-bibliographical appendix by Bernard Kangro. Sweden: Eesti Kirjanike Kooperatiiv.

Raag, Raimo (2004) “The national identity and culture of Estonians living in the West 1944–1991”. In David Cousnis, Eric Dickens, Alexander Harding, and Richard C. Waterhouse, eds. Estonia: identity and independence, 179–197. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi.

Raag, Raimo 2011. “I’m Estonian – what is your excuse? Ethnic and linguistic aspects of the identity of Estonians in Sweden”. In Riho Grünthal and Magdolna Kovács, eds. Ethnic and linguistic context of Identity: Finno-Ugric minorities, 197–214. (Uralica Helsingiensia, 5.) Helsinki: Helsingin yliopiston suomalais-ugrilainen laitos.

Radstone, Susannah (2011) “What place is this? Transcultural memory and the locations of memory studies”. Parallax 17, 4, 109–123,

Radstone, Susannah (2012) “Afterword: bringing memory home: location, theory, hybridity”. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 21, 2, 351–357,

Rothberg, Michael (2009) Multidirectional memory: remembering the Holocaust in the age of decolonization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Saldukas, Linas (2006) “Lithuanians in DP camps in Germany (after the mass emigration in 1944)”. In Kaja Kumer-Haukanõmm, Tiit Rosenberg, and Tiit Tammaru, eds. Suur põgenemine 1944: Eestist lahkumine läände ja selle mõjud, 52–68. [The Great Escape in 1944: departure to the West and the aftereffects.] Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.

Sheldrake, Peter (1986) “Foreword”. In Michael Cigler, ed. The Baltic peoples. (Australian Ethnic Heritage Series, 5.) Melbourne: AE Press.

Siim, Pihla Maria (2018) “From Finland back to Estonia? Members of translocal families contemplating their future plans”. In Leena Kurvet-Käosaar and Triinu Ojamaa, eds. The 2018 Annual Conference of the Centre of Excellence in Estonian Studies “On the Move: Migration and Diasporas”. Nov 29 – Dec 01 2018, Estonian Literary Museum, Tartu, Estonia. Abstracts, 70. Tartu: ELM Scholarly Press.

Stroińska, Magda and Branka Popovic (1999) “Discourse of black and white: linguistic principles of hate speech”. In Jef Verschueren, ed. Language and Ideology: Selected Papers from the 6th International Pragmatics Conference, 544–557. Antwerp: IPrA v.z.w.

Sundholm, John (2011) “Visions of transnational memory”. Journal of Aesthetics and Culture 3, 1, 1−5.

Tammaru, Tiit, Kaja Kumer-Haukanõmm, and Kristi Anniste (2010) “The formation and develop­ment of the Estonian diaspora”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36, 7. 1157−1174.

Telve, Keiu (2016) “International commuting changes the way work is done: case study of Estonian blue-collar and skilled workers in Finland”. Ethnologia Fennica. Finnish Studies in Ethnology 43, 28−42.

Törnquist-Plewa, Barbara and Tea Sindbæck Andersen (2017) “Introduction: on transcultural memory and reception”. In Tea Sindbæk Andersen and Barbara Törnquist-Plewa, eds. The twentieth century in European memory: transcultural mediation and reception, 1–23. (European Studies, 34.) Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Uibopuu, Valev (2012) Välismaine Eesti Kirjanike Liit. [Estonian Writers’ Union Abroad.] Tartu: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum, Eesti Kirjanike Liit.

UNHCR 2018 = Figures at a glance. Statistical yearbooks of the UN Refugee Agency. Available online at <>. Accessed on 08.03.2019.

Van Hear, Nicholas (2010) “Migration”. In Kim Knott and Seán McLoughlin, eds. Diasporas: concepts, intersections, identities, 34–39. London: Zed Books.

Back to Issue