CAN THERE BE A ‘SAFE HAVEN’ FOR TRAUMA SURVIVORS IN THIS SOCIAL MEDIA DOMINATED WORLD?; pp. 223–238Full article in PDF format | https://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2019.2.07
The 20th and 21st centuries have been marked by a number of traumatic events: with the two World Wars, Korean War and, especially in the last twenty-five years, with conflicts in the Middle East and in Africa, as well as others, vast numbers of people have been displaced and have had to journey far and wide to find not only a new home but a safe haven from the atrocities of war. While discrimination against newcomers to a country, prejudice, racism, nationalism, religious fundamentalism, and authoritarian dictatorships are not new phenomena, what makes the recent reactions to the current worldwide human influxes different is the use of language manipulation, propaganda and hate speech via social media to re-stigmatize and re-traumatize the new refugees, asylum-seekers, immigrants and migrants. Social media platforms give everyone the opportunity to express their views, whether positive or negative, about anyone who could be considered the other. Both right-wing and left-wing parties and governments also see the usefulness of using the manipulation of the labels given to newcomers and inciting fear of them for their own agendas. In this paper we will investigate how the use of linguistic labels and stereotyping about the other contribute to the rise of hate speech worldwide and how the presence of hate speech about the newcomers has re-traumatized many refugees who had thought they had reached a safe haven after fleeing the source of their original trauma. For the purpose of this study, we will be using data that primarily refers to Italy and Poland, as well as some other examples.
Ball, Molly (2016) “Donald Trump and the politics of fear”. The Atlantic. Available online at https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/09/donald-trump-and-the-politics-of-fear/498116/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Barth, Diane F. (2016) “How can we understand our fear of the other?”. Psychology Today, March 11. Available online at https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-couch/201603/how-can-we-understand-our-fear-the-other . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Andary-Brophy, Cristine Anne (2015) Political correctness: social-fiscal liberalism and left-wing authoritarianism. Master of Arts Theses, University of Toronto. Available online at https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/75755/3/Brophy_Christine_201511_MA_thesis.pdf . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Burton, Neel (2017) “The psychology of scapegoating”. Psychology Today, September 17. Available online at https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/hide-and-seek/201312/the-psychology-scapegoating . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Cambridge Online Dictionary (n.d.) Cambridge dictionary. Available online at https://dictionary. cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Carroll, Rebecca (2015) “Fear lies at the heart of opposition to political correctness”. The Guardian, October 22, Available online at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/ oct/22/fear-lies-at-the-heart-of-opposition-to-political-correctness . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Chichilnisky, Graciela (2016) “Global warming and the future of humanity: an interview with Noam Chomsky and Graciela Chichilnisky”. Truthout Org, September 17. Available online at https://truthout.org/articles/global-warming-and-the-future-of-humanity-an-interview-with-noam-chomsky-and-graciela-chichilnisky/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Did Donald Trump encourage violence at his rallies? (2019) Snopes.com, January 11. Available online at https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/donald-trump-incitement-violence/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
ECRI (2017) Annual report of the Commission against Racism and Intolerance. Available online at https://www.coe.int/en/web/european-commission-against-racism-and-intolerance/annual-reports . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Folsom, Robert (2016) Why Trump? Why now? The violent death of political correctness.Gainesville, GA: Socioeconomics Institute. Available online at https://www. socionomics.net/2016/05/why-trump-why-now-the-violent-death-of-political-correctness/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
F.Q. (2017) “Migranti, Salvini: ‘Serve pulizia di massa via per via, quartiere per quartiere’”. Il Fatto Quotidiano, February 18. Available online at https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2017/ 02/18/migranti-salvini-serve-pulizia-di-massa-via-per-via-quartiere-per-quartiere/3399250/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Goldman, David (2018) “Big Tech made the social media mess. It has to fix it”. CNN Business, October 29. Available online at https://www.cnn.com/2018/10/29/tech/social-media-hate-speech/index.html . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Henderson, Leslie (2018) Why our brains see the world as ‘us’ versus ‘them’. The Conversation, June 21. Available online at http://theconversation.com/why-our-brains-see-the-world-as-us-versus-them-98661 . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Jarosław Kaczyński boi się, że uchodźcy sprowadzą zarazę? Tak mówił na wyborczym wiecu (2015). Gazeta Wyborcza, October 13. Available online at http://wyborcza.pl/ 1,75398,19014711,kaczynski-boi-sie-zarazy.html . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Kurski, Jarosław (2019) “Zasiane ziarno nienawiści prędzej czy później wydaje plon”. Gazeta Wyborcza, January 14. Available online at http://wyborcza.pl/7,75968,24360765,zasiane-ziarno-nienawisci-predzej-czy-pozniej-wydaje-plon.html . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Lehn, Suzanne (2018) “Word frames: ‘migrants’ and ‘refugees’ in French media”. News Frames, April 10. Available online at https://newsframes.globalvoices.org/2018/04/10/wordframes-migrants-and-refugees-in-french-media/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
L’Espresso (2018) “Elezioni 2018, eletto il primo senatore nero della storia d’Italia: ed è della Lega”. L’Espresso, March 6. Available online at http://espresso.repubblica.it/palazzo/2018/03/06/ news/elezioni-2018-eletto-il-primo-senatore-nero-della-storia-d-itaia-ed-e-della-lega-1.319201 . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Magu, Rijul, Kshitij Joshi, and Jiebo Luo (2017) Detecting the Hate Code in Social Media. Researchgate, March 16. Available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 315119537_Detecting_the_Hate_Code_on_Social_Media . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Merriam Webster English Dictionary (n.d.) Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Available online at https://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/hate%20speech . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Migration, I. I. (2017) World migration report 2018. IOM Publications. Available online at https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2018_en.pdf . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Ochwat, Magdalena (2018) “O uchodźcach z Grecji (i nie tylko) na lekcji we współczesnej szkole – Nowe życie. Jak Polacy pomogli uchodźcom z Grecji Dionisiosa Sturisa”. Postscriptum Polonistyczne 2, 22, 207–223.
Oxford English Living Dictionary (n.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. Available online at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Psychology Research and Reference (n.d.) “Scapegoat theory”. Psychology. Available online at https://psychology.iresearchnet.com/social-psychology/social-psychology-theories/scapegoat-theory/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Quattrone, Tony (2017) “Elezioni italiane che fare”. Meridem, September 19. Available online at http://www.meridem.org/elezioni-italiane-che-fare/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
RAINews (2018) “Eletto il primo senatore di colore della Repubblica Italiana: è nigeriano e della Lega”. RAINews, March 6. Available online at http://www.rainews.it/dl/rainews/media/ Eletto-primo-senatore-di-colore-della-Repubblica-Italiana-nigeriano-della-Lega-e16e3f98-dd3f-47ad-a76d-1cdeafb547b3.html#foto-1 . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Reich, Robert B. (2014) “The new tribalism and the decline of the nation state”. Huffpost, March 23. Available online at https://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-reich/the-new-tribalism-and-the_b_5020469.html . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Repubblica (2018) “Nigeriano, immigrato, titolare d’azienda: eletto dalla Lega il primo senatore di colore”. Repubblica Milano, March 06. Available online at https://milano.repubblica.it/ cronaca/2018/03/06/news/bergamo_eletto_il_primo_senatore_italiano_nero_e_leghista-190601497/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Resnick, Brian (2017) “7 lessons from psychology to explain the irrational fear of outsiders”. VOX, January 28. Available online <at https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/1/28/14425658/fear-of-refugees-explained> . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Shepard, Steven (2017) “Polls fuel both sides in travel ban fight”. Politico, February 08. Available online at https://www.politico.com/story/2017/02/trump-immigration-travel-ban-234816 . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Stosunek Polaków do przyjmowania uchodźców. Komunikat z Badań NR 1/2017 (2019) CBOS, January 14. Available online at https://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2017/ K_001_17.PDF . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Trindade, Luiz Valério P. (2018) “On the frontline: the rise of hate speech and racism on social media”. Discover Society, September 04. Available online at https://discoversociety.org/ 2018/09/04/on-the-frontline-the-rise-of-hate-speech-and-racism-on-social-media/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Twose, Gabriel (n.d.) “Understanding attitudes toward recent arrivals to the United States”. American Psychological Association, September 26, 2018.Available online at https:// www.apa.org/advocacy/immigration/prejudice-facts.pdf. Accessed on 20.02.2019.
UNHCR (2018) UNHCR Global Trends Forced Displacement in 2017 Report UNHCR. Global Trends, May 15. Available online at https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2017/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Waldorn, Jeremy (2012) The harm in hate speech. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Washington, Ellis (2015) “The case against Marine LePen”. Ellis Washington Report, October 26. Available online at http://www.elliswashingtonreport.com/tag/eu/ . Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Weigel, Moira (2016) “Political correctness: how the right invented a phantom enemy”. The Guardian, November 30. Available online at https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/ nov/30/political-correctness-how-the-right-invented-phantom-enemy-donald-trump. Accessed on 20.02.2019.
Allport, Gordon W. (1954) The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Brown, James A. C. (1963) Techniques of persuasion. London: Penguin UK Press.
Burke, Edmund (1834) The works of Edmund Burke. New York: George Dearborn.
Cap, Piotr (2018) “‘We don’t want any immigrants or terrorists here’: the linguistic manufacturing of xenophobia in the post-2015 Poland”. Discourse and Society 29, 4, 380–398.
Girard, René (1987) Things hidden since the foundation of the world. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Jakubowicz, Andrew Henry (2017) “Alt_Right White Lite: trolling, hate speech and cyber racism on social media”. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies 9, 3. DOI: 10.5130/ccs.v9i3.5655
Klemperer, Victor (1946/2000) The language of the Third Reich: LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii: A philologist’s notebook. Trans. By M. Brady. London: Athlone Press.
Perea, Juan F. (1997) Immigrants out! The new nativism and the anti-immigrant impulse in the United States. New York and London: New York University Press.
Stroinska, Magda and Grazyna Drzazga (2017) “Polish hejt: hate speech reexamined”. Warsaw East European Review, 119–134.
Stroinska, Magda and Branka Popovic (1999) “Discourse of black and white: linguistic principles of hate speech”. In Jef Verschueren, ed. Language and ideology: selected papers from the 6th international pragmatics conference, 544–557. Antwerp: IPrA v.z.w.
Back to Issue