eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format |

Irfan Ullah Khan, Shumilina Kateryna, Ngboawaji Daniel Nte, Imran Ali Sandano


The centrality of conceptual analysis has been underlined and acknowledged by scientists worldwide. This research discusses a new concept of security, identifying the relationship between state security and threats, labelled state security relation. The main emphasis is on a novel notion in the security paradigm, dependent state security, which is grounded by the case study of Chinese state security relationship with the Pakistani terrorism threat. The paper also highlights some of the practices that led to the develop­ment of the concept and the threat response strategies implied in the case of dependent state security relations.


Ahmad, Naveed (2016) “Note to US: Pakistan’s insatiable appetite for F-16s”. The Express Tribune, Jan. 21.

Ali, Imtiaz (2016) “Chinese citizen targeted in Karachi blast”. Dawn, May 30.

Azad, Arif (1996) “MQM and growth of ethnic movements in Pakistan”. Economic & Political Weekly 31, 18, 1061–1062.

Azog (2017) “China may deliver to Pakistan 300 Type 99 main battle tanks”. Defence blog. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Baldwin, David A. (1997) “The concept of security”. Review of International Studies 23, 5–26.

BBC News (2017) “China workers killed in Pakistan”. Available online at < 2/hi/south_asia/4716820.stm>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

BBC News (2017) “Pakistan sectarian bus attack in Kohistan kills 18. BBCNews”". Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

BBC News (2017) “Nanga Parbat attack: Taliban say new faction killed climbers”. BBCNews. Available online at <from>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Bhutta Zafar (2008) “Chinese government seeks security for its nationals”. Daily Times, January 24.

Bodziany, Marek and Paweł Kocoń (2018) “Ivan at the gates! – Armed conflict in Ukraine and the moral panic in Poland?”. Trames 22, 2, 137–157.

Brown, Harold (1984) Thinking about national security: defence and foreign policy in a dangerous world. Boulder, Colo., New York: Westview Press.

Business Recorder (2017) “Bilateral trade: China, Pakistan take step towards correcting BoP”. Business Recorder, Aug. 11.

Buzan, Barry (2003) Regional security complex theory in the post-cold war world. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Buzan, Barry (2016) People, states & fear: an agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era. Colchester: ECPR Press.

Buzan, Barry and Ole Waever (2009) “Macrosecuritization and security constellations: re-con­sidering scale in securitization theory”. Review of International Studies 35, 2, 253–276.

Buzan, Barry and Lene Hansen (2016) The evolution of international security studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chaziza, Mordechai (2016) “China–Pakistan relationship: a game-changer for the Middle East?”. Contemporary Review of the Middle East 3, 2, 124–167.

Christoffersen, Gaye (2002) “The role of east Asia in Sino-American affairs”. Asian survey 43, 3, 393.

Clayton, Susan D. and Susan Opotow (1994) Green justice: conceptions of fairness and the natural world. New York: New York.

Daily Times (2015) “Two engineers killed in Jewani airport attack”. Daily Times, Aug. 10.

Dawn (2011) “Thar coal mining: Chinese group loses interest”. Dawn, Oct. 10.

Dillon, Michael (2004) Xinjiang–China’s Muslim Far North West. London and New York: Routledge Curzon.

Duchâtel, Mathieu (2017) Terror overseas: understanding China’s evolving counter-terror strategy. Available online at < UNDERSTANDING_CHINAS_EVOLVING_COUNTER_TERROR_STRATEGY.pdf>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Dumbaugh, Kerry B. (2017) Exploring the China-Pakistan relationship. (Roundtable Report.) Alexandria: Centre for Naval Analysis. Available online at < oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA524319>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Easton, David (1957) “An approach to the analysis of political systems”. World Politics 9, 3, 383–400.

Fallon, Theresa (2015) “The new Silk Road: Xi Jinping’s grand strategy for Eurasia”. American Foreign Policy Interests 37, 3, 140–147.

Garlick, Jeremy (2018) “Deconstructing the China–Pakistan economic corridor: pipe dreams versus geopolitical realities”. Journal of Contemporary China 27, 112, 1–15.

Garver, John W. (2002) “The security dilemma in Sino–Indian relations”. India Review 1, 4, 1–38.

Garver, John W. (2016) “Keeping Pakistan as a balancer while courting Indian friendship”. Asia Policy 21, 1, 148–151.

Grare, Frederic (2007) “Rethinking western strategies toward Pakistan: an action agenda for the United States and Europe”, Washington, D.C. : Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Greenstein, Fred I. and Nelson W. Polsby (1975) Handbook of political science. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley

Griffiths, Martin (2007) International relations theory for the twenty-first century. London and New York: Routledge.

Hempel, Carl G. (1972) Fundamentals of concept formation in empirical science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Heywood, Andrew (2014) Global politics. London: Palgrave. Macmillan Education UK.

India Today (2016) “Baloch rebels attack Dudher project site, 2 Chinese engineers killed, many hurt”. India Today, May 7.

Jamshed, Unsa and Massarrat Abid (2015) “Terrorism and Sino-Pak relationship: a case study of Chinese Nationals as victims of terrorism in Pakistan during Musharraf regime”. Pakistan Vision 16, 2, 87–116.

Kant, Immanuel and W. Hastie (2006) Kant’s principles of politics: including his essay on Perpetual peace, a contribution to political science. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.

Khaled, Ahmed (2011) Sectarian war: Pakistan’s Sunni-Shia violence and its links to the Middle East. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Khan, Manzoor Afridi (2014) “Searching Friends and Strengthening Security: Pak-China Relations in 1950s”. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences 7, 2, 106–115.

Khan, Sher Baz (2007) “Over 100 Chinese women flee to Lahore”. Dawn, June 28.

Khetran, Mir Sher Baz, and Muhammad Anjum Saeed (2017) “The CPEC and China-Pakistan relations: a case study on Balochistan”. China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies 3, 3, 447–461

Khruakham, Seksan and Joongyeup Lee (2014) “Terrorism and other determinants of fear of crime in the Philippines”. International Journal of Police Science & Management 16, 1, 1–15.

Kunreuther, Howard, Geoffrey Heal, and Research National Bureau of Economic (2017) Inter­dependent security: a general model. National Bureau of Economic Research. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Makinda Samuel M. (2006) "Rethinking Global Security: An African Perspective?".

Merriam Webster (2018) Merriam Webster dictionary. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Miller, Frederic P., Agnes F. Vandome, and John Mcbrewster (2011) Siege of Lal Masjid. New York: Alphascript Publishing.

Milner, Helen V. and David A. Baldwin (1990) The political economy of national security: an annotated bibliography. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Misra, Ashutosh and Michael E Clarke (2012) Pakistan’s stability paradox: domestic, regional and international dimensions. New York: Routledge.

Mizokami, Kyle (2017) “A look at China’s growing international arms trade”. USNI News. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

MOFCOM (2017) Country reports/investment guides 2014/2015. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Munir, Muhammad (2007) “Motives behind the killings of Chinese”. Daily Pakistan Observer, July 12.

Munir, Muhammad (2017) “CPEC as a Linchpin of China-Pakistan relations”. Pakistan Observer, Sept. 14.

Mustafa, Sadaf and Ammad Zafar (2017) “China Pakistan economic corridor: importance and challenges for Pakistan and China”. International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research 2, 5059–5068.

Napoli, Christopher (2014) “China’s economic rise: implications for ASEAN trade flows”. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 31, 3, 345–360.

Pakistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2017) A report on a terrorists attack killing three Chinese engineers in Gwadar. Available from

Pakistan Government (2018) China-Pakistan economic corridor. Government of Pakistan. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Pakistan Today (2017) “Pakistan confirms death of Chinese duo abducted from Balochistan”. Pakistan Today, Oct. 30.

PBI (2017) Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan. Board of Investment, Pakistan. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Qaddos, Maira (2015) “Stakes of China on Pakistan’s war against terrorism and its impact on bilateral relations of China and Pakistan”. Paper read at International Conference on CPEC, Dec. 09–10, at GC University, Lahore.

Qingtian, Liu and Jincheng, Fang (2015) “The new development of terrorism and its influence on China”. Guojiwentiyanjiu [Journal of International Studies], 4, 70–84.

Ramachandran, Sudha (2018) “Chinese projects in Pakistan Prove Tempting Targets for Terrorist Groups”. Terrorism Monitor 16, 3, 12–39.

Reuters (2012) “Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan claims responsibility for killing Chinese tourist”. The Express Tribune, March 2.

Robertson, Charles, Yvonne Mhango, and Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala (2012) The fastest billion: the story behind Africa’s economic revolution. Johannesburg: Renaissance Capital.

Saeed, Luqman, Shabib Haider Syed, and Roger P. Martin (2014) “Historical patterns of terrorism in Pakistan”. Defense & Security Analysis 30, 3, 209–229.

Sahill, Pamir Halimzai (2017) “The terror speaks: inside Pakistan’s terrorism discourse and national action plan”. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 41, 4, 319–337.

Salt, Alexander (2018) “Mexican cartels and the crime-terror nexus”. Sustainable Security, March 20.

SATP (2018) “Balochistan: The Chinese Chequered”. South Asia Intelligence Review. Available online at <>. Accessed on January 20, 2019.

Sattar, Abdul, and Agha Shahi (2007) Pakistan’s foreign policy, 1947-2005: a concise history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sattar, Huma (2015) “China and Pakistan’s all-weather friendship”. The Diplomat, March 12.

Schlesinger, James R. (1967) “Systems analysis and the political process”. Journal of Law & Economics 11, 2, 281–298.

Schroeder, Ursula (2013) The organization of European security governance. London: Routledge.

SIPRI (2015) SIPRI yearbook 2015: armaments, disarmament and international security. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Small, Andrew (2015) The China-Pakistan axis: Asia’s new geopolitics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Smith, Peter H, Kōtarō Horisaka, and Shōji Nishijima (2003) East Asia and Latin America: the unlikely alliance. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Stern, Arthur C. (2014) Air pollution. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Stoller, Gary (2018) “Mexico: where more Americans are murdered than in all other foreign countries combined”." Forbes, Feb. 21.

The Economic Times (2017) “Stop CPEC now: Baloch leaders to China”. The Economic Times, Oct. 18.

The Express Tribune (2012) “Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan claims responsibility for killing Chinese tourist”. The Express Tribune, March 2.

Udgaonkar, B. M. (2001) “The international dimension of national security: some observations”. Strategic Analysis 24, 10, 1773–1794.

Wang, George, Wei Hu, and Colin Duffield (2014) “Risk mitigation in managing a mega project – a case study of Gomal Zam dam construction weight and cloud model”, Journal of Risk Analysis and Crisis Response 4, 1, 2.

Wolfers, Arnold (1952a) ‘National security’ as an ambiguous symbol. New York: Academy of Political Science.

Wolfers, Arnold (1952b) “‘National Security’ as an Ambiguous Symbol”. Political Science Quarterly 67, 4, 481–502.

Xinhua News Agency (2004) “Rescued Chinese hostage returns home from Pakistan”. Xinhua News Agency, Oct. 16.

Yang, Jiechi (2014) “Innovations in China’s diplomatic theory and practice under new Circumstances”. Qiushi Journal 6, 1, 1–19.

Yu, Xiaofeng (2009) “An Opinion on the Development of “Frontier Security Studies””. Journal of Zhejiang University (7), 1–14.

Yu, Xiaofeng, and Guiping Xie (2015) “‘Selectivity’ reconstruction: extending the concept of securitization”. World Economics & Politics 9, 56–79.

Zhao, Hong and ISEAS (2016) “China’s One Belt One Road: an overview of the debate”. Journal of Boundary & Ocean Studies, Singapore : ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute.

Xie, Guiping Xièguìpíng (2016) “‘Zhōng bā jīngjì zǒuláng’ jiànshè jí qí kuà jìng fēi chuántǒng ānquán zhìlǐ”. Nányáng wèntí yánjiū [Nanyang Research] 3, 123–157

Back to Issue