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TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


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Umer Khayyam, Ehsan Inamullah, Syed Shah


The study was conducted to identify the importance of socio-cultural traits of tribal people in relation to development. It was aimed at finding the key components of Pushtun culture that may accelerate or restrain development interventions in FATA region of the country. This study was conducted in three zones of the tribal areas of Pakistan, and a total number of 384 respondents were selected randomly. The respondents were sub­jected to closed ended questionnaires. Questionnaires acquired information related to the link of three basic elements of Pushtunwali (nang, melmastia and badal), in relation to their importance for present day development. Results revealed that a majority of respondents considered nang as the mode of development in their areas. Also, melmastia, by a majority of respondents, was favored to be extended to development consultants, subject to their follow up of local traditions. Moreover, a prominent number of respondents also con­sidered deployment of badal to development interventions as well as related personnel, if development interventions defy or counter local traits and locals’ consent. Incorporating local societal culture was thus considered to play a pivotal role in determin­ing success of rural developmental projects in FATA region of Pakistan.


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