In 2010–2012 the new assessment system was officially introduced into Estonian formal education. In order to understand how fundamental a cultural change this was for Estonian society, this study presents the discourses represented in the memoirs of the former students who got their assessment experience between the 1960s and the 1980s. The official Soviet assessment system was introduced into Estonian education in the 1950s. Although the Estonian pedagogical literature in the 1960s – 1980s was pedagogically comprehensive, the 48 recollections gathered for this study repeatedly represented discourses that can be found from the assessment norms introduced in the 1950s: counting mistakes, public humiliation, teacher’s injustice or assessment that was meant to punish for improper behaviour.
Aarelaid-Tart, A. (2009) “Cultural trauma as the mnemonic device of collective memory”. In E. Kõresaar, E. Lauk, and K. Kuutma, eds. The burden of remembering. recollections & representations of the 20th century. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society.
Berry, R. (2011) “Educational assessment in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan”. In R. Berry and B. Adamson, eds. Assessment reform in education: policy and practice, 49–61. Dordrecht: Springer
Bloom, B. S., J. T. Hastings, and G. F. Madaus (1971) Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Burns, R. J. (2002) “Education and social change: a proactive or reactive role?”. International Review of Education 48, 1–2, 21–43.
Elango, A. (1967) Õpilaste teadmiste kontrollimise metoodika kusimusi. [Problems of methods in checking students’ knowledge.] Tallinn: Valgus.
Elango A., J. Nurmik, and K. Saks (1984) Õpilaste teadmiste kontrollimise ja hindamise probleeme. [Problems of checking students’ knowledge and assessment.] Tallinn: Valgus.
Elango A., J. Nurmik, and K. Saks (1980) Nõukogude pedagoogika ja kool. [Soviet pedagogy and school.] Tallinn.
Harro, H. (2001) Changing journalistic conventions in the press: empirical studies on daily newspapers under different political conditions in 20th century Estonia. Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo
Holodynski, M. and S. Kronast (2009) “Shame and pride: invisible emotions in classroom research”. In B. Röttger-Rössler and H. Markowitsch, eds. Emotions as bio-cultural processes, 371–394, Springer.
Kreekman, M. (1953) Abiks haridustöötajaile. [Aid to educationalists.] Haridusalaste määruste, korralduste, käskkirjade ja juhendite kogumik. [Collection of decrees, regulations, mandates and regulations in education.] Tallinn: Ministry of Education of the Estonian SSR.
Kõresaar, E. (2004) Memory and history in Estonian post-soviet life stories. PhD dissertation. Tartu: Tartu University Press.
Misztal, B. A. (2003) Theories of social remembering. McGraw-Hill International.
Polkinghorne, D. E. (1995) “Narrative configuration in qualitative analysis.” Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 8, 1, 5–23.
Popham, W. J. (2009) “Assessment literacy for teachers: faddish or fundamental?” Theory into Practice 48, 4–11.
Riiklik Õppekava (2011) [Estonian National Curriculum.] Tallinn: Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.
Saks, K. (1974) Õpilaste õppeedukuse arvestuse ja hindamise probleeme. [Problems of evaluating students’ progress and assessment.] Tallinn: Valgus.
Stiggins, Richard J. (2005) “Rethinking the motivational dynamics of productive assessment”. M.A.S.S. Journal 5, 1, 8–12.Sutrop, M., H. Harro-Loit, and N. Jung (2013) “Kooli väärtusarenduse hindamismudel – miks ja kuidas?” [Model of evaluating schools – why and how?] In G. Kangilaski et al., eds. Väärtuspõhine kool. Eesti ja maailma kogemus, 216–246. [Value-based school: Estonian and world experience.] Tartu: EKSA.