eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format | DOI: 10.3176/tr.2016.1.02

Kulno Türk


The aim of the research is to identify options for developing performance manage­ment (PM) of the academic staff (AS) based on the example of Estonian universities (economics faculties). We want to find out more about PA and its interaction with other elements of performance – the effectiveness of teaching and research are studied. The analysis includes a review on how the PM system has developed over time, ascertaining special features with respect to the economic crisis. Methods included three questionnaire-based surveys of AS carried out in 2013, interviews with nine academic leaders and seven focus group interviews were conducted. Qualitative methods involved the analysis of documentation universities, interviews and participatory observations within a case study. A detailed PA system enables the AS to achieve higher results specifically during periods of restructuring and change at universities, but causes a negative impact for quality and motivation of AS in times of crisis. During the stage of further development of the faculties, it would be necessary to pay more attention to qualitative indicators and reduce the number of quantitative indicators. It is necessary to develop the PM to be applied in conjunction with other management instruments (qualitative management, personnel management).


Aguinis, H. and C. Pierce (2007) “Enhancing the relevance of organizational behavior by embracing performance management research”. Journal of Organizational Behavior 29, 139–145.

Atkinson, A., S. Burgess, B. Croxson, P. Gregg, C. Propper, H. Slater, and D. Wilson (2009) “Evaluat­ing the impact of performance-related pay for teachers in England”. Labour Economics 16, 3, 251–261.

Biron, M., E. Farndale, and J. Paauwe (2011) “Performance management effectiveness: lessons from world-leading firms”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 22, 6, 1294–1311.

Bogt, H. and R. W. Scapens (2012) “Performance management in universities: effects of the transition to more quantitative measurement systems”. European Accounting Review 21, 3, 451–497.

Browne, L. and S. Rayner (2015) “Managing leadership in university reform: data-led decision-making, the cost of learning and déjà vu?”. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 43, 2, 290–307.

Brudan, A. N. (2010) “Rediscovering performance management: systems, learning and integration”. Measuring Business Excellence 14, 1, 109–123.

Budworth, M.-H., G. P. Latham, and L. Manroop (2015) “Looking forward to performance improve­ment: a field test of the feedforward interview for performance management”. Human Resource Management, 54, 1, 45–54.

Bush, T. and D. Middlewood (2013) Leading and Managing People in Education. 3rd Ed. Sage Publications Ltd.

Cardona, F. (2007) Performance related pay in public service. In OECD and EU Member States. Sigma.

Clayson, D. (2013) “Initial impressions and the student evaluation of teaching”. Journal of Education for Business 88, 1, 26–35.

Cranet Survey on Comparative HRM (2011) International executive report. Cranet. Available online at < 280212.pdf >. Accessed on 28.07.2014.

Crowell, C. R., D. A., Hantula, and K. L. McArthur (2011) “From job analysis to performance manage­ment: a synergistic rapprochement to organizational effectiveness”. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 31, 4, 316-332.

De Andres, R., J. L. Garcia-Lapresta, and L. Martinez (2010) “A multi-granular linguistic model for management decision-making in performance appraisal”. Soft Computing 14, 1, 21–34.

Decramer, A., C. Smolders, and A. Vanderstraeten (2013) “employee performance management culture and system features in higher education: relationship with employee performance management satisfaction”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 24, 2, 352–371.

Dewettinck, K. and H. van Dijk (2013) “Linking Belgian employee performance management system characteristics with performance management system effectiveness: exploring the mediating role of fairness”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 24, 4, 806–825.

Ederer, F. and G. Manso (2012) Is pay-for-performance detrimental to innovation? Available online at <>. Accessed on 20.07.2014.

Edler, J., L. Georghiou, K. Blind, and E. Uyarra (2012) “Evaluating the demand side: new challenges for evaluation”.

Research Evaluation 21, 1, 33–47.

Egginton, B. (2010) “Introduction of Formal Performance Appraisal of Academic Staff the Manage­ment Challenges associated with effective implementation”. Educational Manage­ment Administration & Leadership 38, 1, 119–133.

Estermann, T, T. Nokkala, and M. Steinel (2011) University autonomy in Europe II. The scorecard. European University Association.

Fang, M. and B. Gerhart (2012) “Does pay for performance diminish intrinsic interest?”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 23, 6, 1176–1196.

Feng, T., D. Wang, and D. Prajogo (2014) “Incorporating human resource management initiatives into customer services: empirical evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms”. Industrial Marketing Management, 43, 1, 126–135.

Figlio, D. N. and L. W. Kenny (2007) “Individual teacher incentives and student performance”. Journal of Public Economics 91, 901–914.

Gerhart, B., S. L. Rynes, and I. S. Fulmer (2009) “Pay and performance: individuals, groups, and executives”. The Academy of Management Annals 3, 1, 251–315.

Gil-Anton, M. (2011) “The merit pay system in a Mexican university: the case of Metropolitan Autonomous University”. The Journal of the Professoriate 4, 2, 122–140.

Gielen, A. C., M. J. M. Kerkhofs, and J. C. Ours (2010) “How performance related pay affects productivity and employment”. Journal of Population Economics 23, 1, 291–301.

Gravina, N. E. and B. P. Siers (2011) “Square pegs and round holes: ruminations on the relationship between performance appraisal and performance management”. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 31, 4, 277–287.

Haines, V. Y. and S. St-Onge (2012) “Performance management effectiveness: practices or con­text?”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 23, 6, 1158–1175.

Hallin, C. A., S. Tveteras, and T. J. Andersen (2012) “Judgmental forecasting of opera­tional cap­abilities: exploring a new indicator to predict financial performance”. Available at <http://

>. Accessed on 12.05.2014.

Heidmets, M. and B. Vilgats (2012) „Control, freedom and trust: seeking for a higher education model in a post-communist country“. Problems of Education in the 21st Century 40, 88–96.

Heinrich, C. J. and G. Marschke (2009) “Incentives and their dynamics in public sector performance management systems”. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 29, 1, 183–208.

Harkness, P. and M. Schier (2011) “Performance related pay in Australian universities: the case of Swinburne university”. Australian Universities’ Review, 53, 2, 50–58.

James, C. (2014) “Trends in the governance and governing of school in England”. Local Government Studies 40, 6, 893–909.

Jones, J., R. Gaffney-Rhys, and E. Jones (2014) “Handle with care! An exploration of the potential risks associated with the publication and summative usage of student evaluation of teaching (SET) results”. Journal of Further and Higher Education 38, 1, 37–56.

Kallio, K. M. and T. J. Kallio (2014) “Management-by-results and performance measure­ment in universities – implications for work motivation”. Studies in Higher Education 39, 4, 574–589.

Kindsiko, E. (2014) Organisational control in university management: a multiparadigm approach on the example of the University of Tartu. PhD Thesis, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Kivipõld, K. and M. Vadi (2013) “Market orientation in the context of the impact of leadership capability on performance”. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 31, 5, 368–387.

Lucifora, C. and F. Origo (2015) “Performance-related pay and firm productivity: evidence from a reform in the structure of collective bargaining”. ILR Review, 68, 3, 606–632.

Lukka, K. (2010) “The roles and effects of paradigms in accounting research”. Management Accounting Research 21, 2, 110–115.

Maillard, J. and S. P. Savage (2012) “Comparing performance: the development of police per­formance management in France and Britain”. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy 22, 4, 363–383.

Malik, M., A. Butt, and J. Choi (2014) “Rewards and employee creative performance: moderating effects of creative self-efficacy, reward importance and locus of control”. Journal of Organizational Behavior 36, 1, 59–74.

Melo, A. I., C. S. Sarrico, and Z. Radnor (2010) “The influence of performance management systems on key actors in universities”. Public Management Review 12, 2, 233–254.

Miah, M. K. and C. G. Hossan (2012) “Performance management system in UK retail industry: a case study”. Far East Journal of Psychology and Business 7, 3, 13–25.

Milanowski, A. (2007) “Performance pay system preferences of students preparing to be teachers”. Education Finance and Policy 2, 2, 111–132.

Mingers, J. and H. Willmott (2013) “Taylorizing business school research: on the ‘one best way’ performative effects of journal ranking lists”. Human Relations 66, 1051–1073.

Mone, E., C. Eisinger, K. Guggenheim, B. Price, and C. Stine (2011) “Performance management at the wheel: driving employee engagement in organizations”. Journal of Business Psychology 26, 2, 205–2012.

Mone, E., B. Price, and C. Eisinger (2011) “Performance management: process perfection or process utility”. Industrial and Organizational Psychology 4, 2, 184–187.

Moreland, J. (2009) “Investigating secondary school leaders’ perceptions of performance manage­ment”. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 37, 6, 735–765.

Nannerup, N. and K. K. Olsen (2014) “Multitasking and performance measurement”. Discussion Papers on Business and Economics, Working Paper 20. University of Southern Denmark. Available online at < abstract_id=2540063>. Accessed on 02.10.2014.

Neal, D. (2011) “The design of performance pay in education“. NBER Working Paper, nr. 16710, January 2011.

Okas, A., M. van der Schaaf, and E. Krull (2014) “Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism”. Trames, 18, 4, 327–344.

Pascal, C. and G. Marschke (2008) “A general test for distortions in performance measures”. Review of Economics and Statistics 90, 3, 428–441.

Philippe, A., M. Dewatripont, C. Hoxby, A. Mas-Colell, and A. Sapir (2008) Higher aspirations: an agenda for reforming European universities. Brueghel Blueprint.

Pepper, A., J. Gore, and A. Crossman (2013) “Are long-term incentive plans an effective and efficient way of motivating senior executives?” Human Resource Management Journal 23, 1, 36–51.

Schulz, E. R. and D. M. Tanguay (2006) “Merit pay in a public higher education institution: questions of impact and attitudes”. Public Personnel Management 35, 1, 77–88.

Soss, J., R. Fording, and S. F. Schram (2011) “The organization of discipline: from perfor­mance management to perversity and punishment”. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 21, 2, 203–232.

Sousa, C. A. A., W. F. Nijs, and P. H. J. Hendriks (2010) “Secrets of the beehive: performance management in university research organizations”. Human Relations 63, 9, 143–1460.

Stanton, P. and A. Nankervis (2011) “Linking strategic HRM, performance management and organiza­tional effectiveness: perceptions of managers in Singapore”. Asia Pacific Business Review 17, 1, 67–84.

Symbaluk, D. G. and A. J. Howell (2010) “Web-based student feedback: comparing teaching-award and research-award recipients”. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 35, 1, 7–82.

Sutrop, M. (2015) “Can values be taught? The myth of value-free education”. Trames 19, 2, 189–202.

Terpstra, D. E. and A. L. Honoree (2009) “Merit pay plans in higher education institutions: characteristics and effects”. Public Personnel Management 38, 4, 55–77.

Türk, K. (2008) “Performance appraisal and the compensation of academic staff in the University of Tartu”. Baltic Journal of Management 3, 1, 40–54.

Türk, K. (2010) “Performance management of academic staff in the faculty of economics and business administration at Tartu University (pluses and minuses)”. In 5th IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology. Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE ICMIT, 624–629. Singapore.

Walker, R. M., F. Damanpour, and C. A. Devece (2010) “Management innovation and organizational performance: the mediating effect of performance management”. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 21, 367–386.

Wang, Z. M. and S. Wang (2008) “Modelling regional HRM strategies in China: an entrepreneur­ship perspective”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 19, 5, 945–963.

Williams, H. M., J. Rayner, and C. W. Allinson (2012) “New public management and organisational commitment in the public sector: testing a mediation model”. International Journal of Human Resource Management 23, 13, 2615–2629.

Zia, A. and C. Koliba (2011) “Accountable climate governance: dilemmas of performance manage­ment across complex governance networks”. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice 13, 5, 479–497.

Back to Issue