WINTER-CITIES AND MOOD DISORDER: OBSERVATIONS FROM EUROPEAN CITY-FORM AT THE END OF LITTLE ICE AGE; pp. 19–37Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/tr.2014.1.02
The rise of modernity in Europe, from the close of the Renaissance to the Second Industrial Revolution, had spanned the period of the Little Ice Age, and was manifest by intensifying urbanization. Europeans in cities during cold days of the late LIA were able to seek warm shelter much easier than their forerunners in earlier times or their contemporaries in colonial America. But at higher latitudes during autumn and winter, daytime shelter deprived people of sunlight. The likely outcome, depression, had been a prominent trait among the founders of modern science and philosophy, many of whom lived in northern Europe. A rich source of perceptually stimulating spatial contrast, historic European city-form, compact and conducive to street walking, had been a visceral catalyst to intellectual exploration, while at the same time it had provided also a partial remedy to some of the mood disorder. Such observation is relevant to contemporary winter-cities.
Akkerman, Abraham (2000) “Harmonies of urban design and discords of city-form: urban aesthetics in the rise of western civilization”. Journal of Urban Design 5, 3, 267–290.
Akkerman, Abraham (2001) “Urban planning in the founding of Cartesian thought”. Philosophy and Geography 4, 2, 143–169.
Andrews, Gavin J., E. Hall, B. Evans, and R. Colls (2012) “Moving beyond walkability: on the potential of health geography”. Social Science & Medicine 75, 11, 1925–1932.
Beck, Aaron T. (2000) Prisoners of hate: the cognitive basis of anger, hostility, and violence. New York: Perennial.
Behringer, Wolfgang (1999) “Climatic change and witch-hunting: the impact of the Little Ice Age on mentalities”. Climatic Change 43, 335–351.
Benjamin, W. (1933/1999) The Arcades project, translated by Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.
BonJour, Laurence (1985) The structure of empirical knowledge. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Brodsky Lacour, Claudia (1996) Lines of thought: discourse, architectonics, and the origin of modern philosophy. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press.
Bromet, Evelyn, L. A. Andrade, I. Hwang, N. A. Simpson, J. Alonso, and 17 additional co-authors (2011) “Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode”. BMC Medicine 9, 90–106.
Brown, Serena-Lynn and H. M. van Praag (1991) “Introduction: why study serotonin in clinical psychiatric research?”. In Serotonin in psychiatric disorders, 3–7. Serena-Lynn Brown and Herman M. van Praag, eds. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Catteau, Jacques (1989) Dostoyevsky and the process of literary creation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Chamberlain, Lesley (1996) Nietzsche in Turin: an intimate biography. New York: Picador.
Cohen, H. Floris (1994) The scientific revolution: a historiographical inquiry. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Colton, Timothy J. (1998) Moscow: governing the socialist metropolis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Connor, James A. (2004) Kepler’s Witch: an astronomer's discovery of cosmic order amid religious war, political intrigue, and the heresy trial of his mother. New York: HarperCollins.
Dalby, J. Thomas (1997) “Elizabethan madness: on London’s stage”. Psychological Reports 81, 1331–1343.
Dreyfus, Hubert L. (2009) “The roots of existentialism”. In A companion to phenomenology and existentialism, 137–161. H. L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Vrathall, eds. Oxford: Blackwell.
Fagan, Brian (2000) The Little Ice Age: how climate made history 1300–1850. New York: Basic Books.
Fellin, Renato and Alessandro Blè (1997) “The disease of Immanuel Kant”. The Lancet 350, 9093, 1771–1773.
Fleming, John, Hugh Honour, and Nikolaus Pevsner (1991) The Penguin dictionary of architecture. Penguin Books: London.
Fowler, D. H. (1990) The mathematics of Plato’s Academy: a new reconstruction. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gaukroger, Stephen (1995) Descartes: an intellectual biography. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gómez, María A., Santiago Juan-Navarro, and Zatlin, Phyllis (2008). Juana of Castile: history and myth of the Mad Queen. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses.
Gribkovskaia, Irina, Øyvind Halskau, Sr, and Gilbert Laporte (2007) “The bridges of Konigsberg: a historical perspective”. Networks 49, 3,199–203.
Hahn, Ina H., Matas B. Grynderup, Sofie B. Dalsgaard, and 7 additional co-authors (2011) “Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?”. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health 37, 5, 446–449.
Harvey, David (2006) “The political economy of public space”. In The politics of public space, 17–34. Setha Low and Neil Smith, eds. Ch. 2. New York: Routledge.
Hegel, Georg W.F. (1807/2009) The phenomenology of spirit. Translated from the German by J. B. Baillie. Seattle: Amazon Digital Services.
Heine, George (2009) Leonhard Euler’s contributions to mathematical cartography. Paper presented at MathFest, the annual meeting of the Mathematical Association of America, Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront, Portland, OR, Aug 06, 2009. Available online at <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p377029_index.html>. Accessed on 02.01.2014.
Herneck, Friedrich (1971) “Hegel und Alexander von Humboldt”. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Math-nat. Reihe 20, 267–270.
Horský, Zdeněk (1990) Kepler v Praze. Prague: Mladá fronta.
Kierkegaard, Søren A. (1848/1962) “The crowd is untruth: On the dedication to ‘That Single Individual’”. In The point of view for my work as an author: a report to history, 109–120. Translated by Walter Lowrie. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Kierkegaard, Søren A. (1847/1978) Letters and documents. Translated by Henrik Rosenmaier, with introduction and notes. Princeton and Chichester, UK: Princeton University Press.
Kierkegaard, Søren A. (1845/1988) Stages on life's way. Princeton University Press
Kierkegaard, Søren A. (1842/1967) Journals and Papers. Vol 1. Translated and edited by Howard V. Hong, Edna H. Hong and George Malatschuk. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
King, Greg (1996) The Mad King: a biography of Ludwig II of Bavaria. London: Aurum Press.
Krakowski, Menahem (2003) “Violence and serotonin: influence of impulse control, affect regulation, and social functioning”. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 15, 294–305.
Krell, David Farrell and Donald L. Bates (1997) The good European: Nietzsche's work sites in word and image. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
LaFrenière, Gilbert F. (2008) The decline of nature: environmental history and the western worldview. Bethesda, MD, Dublin and London: Academica Press.
Latzman, Robert D. and Raymond R. Swisher, (2005) “The interactive relationship among adolescent violence, street violence, and depression”. Journal of Community Psychology 33, 3, 355–371.
Levi, Werner (1989) From alms to liberation: the Catholic church, the theologians, poverty, and politics. Santa Barbara: Praeger.
Lowenthal, David (1994) “Author’s response (to David N. Livingstone’s, Classics in human geography revisited)”. Progress in Human Geography 18, 2, 213–215.
Löwith, Karl (1964) From Hegel to Nietzsche: the revolution in nineteenth-century thought. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York.
McIlwraith, Thomas F., Edward K. Muller (2001) North America: the historical geography of a changing continent. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962) Phenomenology of perception. Translated from the French by Colin Smith. New York: Humanities Press, and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Mersch, Peter P.A., Hermine M. Middendorp, Antoinette L. Bouhuys, Domien G.M. Beersma, and Rutger H. van den Hoofdakker (1999) “Seasonal affective disorder and latitude: a review of the literature”. Journal of Affective Disorders 53, 1, 35–48.
Nietzsche, Friedrich W. (1885/2007) Thus Spake Zarathustra. Translated by Thomas Common. Stilwell, KS: Digireads.com.
Panofsky, Erwin (1957) Gothic architecture and scholasticism. New York: Meridian Books.
Parkhurst Ferguson, Priscilla (1994). Paris as Revolution: writing the nineteenth-century city. Berkeley and London: University of California.
Pavlov, Andrei P. and Maureen Perrie (2003) Ivan the Terrible. Harlow, UK: Pearson-Longman.
Pinkard, Terry (2000) Hegel: a biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
PLoS Computational Biology (2008, February 4) Why serotonin can cause depression and anxiety. ScienceDaily. Available online at<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/ 080204094507.htm>. Accessed on 07.03.2013.
Rattle, Alison (2011) Mad kings and queens. New York: Sterling Publishing.
Sasaki, Chikara (2003) Descartes’s mathematical thought. (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 237.) Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sauer, Carl O. (1925) “The morphology of landscape”. University of California Publications in Geography 2, 2. 19–54.
Shorter, Edward (1998) A history of psychiatry: from the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. New York: Wiley.
Simonsen, Kirsten (2013) “In quest of a new humanism: embodiment, experience and phenomenology as critical geography”. Progress in Human Geography 37, 1, 10–26.
Soccio, Douglas J. (2007) Archetypes of wisdom: an introduction to philosophy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Tuan, Yi-Fu (1977) Space and place: the perspective of experience. University of Minnesota: Minneapolis.
Tuchman, Barbara (1978) A distant mirror. New York: Ballentine Books.
Van Praag, Herman M., E. Ron de Kloet, and Jim van Os (2004) Stress, the brain and depression. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Von Humboldt, Alexander (1845) Kosmos: a general survey of the physical phenomena of the universe. Vol. I. Translated from the German by A. Prichard. London: Hippolyte Bailliere.Whited, Tamara L., Jens I. Engels, Richard H. Ibsen, and Wybren Verstegen (2005) Northern Europe: an environmental history. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Back to Issue