eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format | DOI: 10.3176/tr.2013.4.05

Thomas Lans, Karine Oganisjana, Marge Täks, Vitaliy Popov


Although entrepreneurship education (EE) has gained popularity internationally, empirical work is scarce on the factors which influence the underlying learning process. This article presents the experiences of a European summer school where factors which contribute to entrepreneurial learning in interdisciplinary, intercultural student groups were elicited and analysed via student reflection. A total of 35 professional and scientific bachelor students from the Netherlands, Latvia and Estonia worked together in groups of five to develop initial business plans at a 10-day summer school. Heterogeneity – including disciplinary and cultural differences – contributed to learning within the groups but also caused confusion and misunderstandings in the entrepreneurship education context. Particularly the factors embracing members’ knowledge, experiences and skills, problem solving and decision making and leadership showed dynamics which appeared to be specific to the context of EE. The results contribute to a better understanding of student learning in EE settings.


Ajzen, Icek (1991) “The theory of planned behavior”. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50, 2, 179–211.

Allen, Jim and Rolf Van der Velden, eds. (2009) Competences and labour market careers of higher education graduates. Maastricht: ROA.

Anderson, William, and Starr-Roxanne Hiltz (2001) “Culturally heterogeneous vs. culturally homo­geneous groups in distributed group support systems: effects on group process and con­sensus”. In Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii international conference on systems sciences. IEEE Computer Society Press.

Antoncic, Bostjan, and Robert Hisrich (2003) “Clarifying the intrapreneurship concept”. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 10, 1, 7–24.

Ardichvili, Alexander, Richard Cardozo, and Sourav Ray (2003) “A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development”. Journal of Business Venturing 18, 1, 105–123.

Biggs, John (1993) “From theory to practice: a cognitive systems approach”. Higher Education Research and Development 12, 1, 73–85.

Cope, Jason (2003) “Entrepreneurial learning and the critical reflection: discontinuous events as triggers for ‘higher-level’ learning”. Management Learning 34, 4, 429–450.

Cox, Taylor, Sharon Lobel, and Poppy McLeod (1991) “Effects of ethnic group cultural differences on cooperative and competitive behavior on a group task”. Academy of Management Journal 34, 4, 827–847.

European Commission (2008) “Entrepreneurship in higher education, especially within non-business studies”. Final report of the expert group. Available online at < policies/sme/documents/education-training-entrepreneurship/>. Accessed on 06.06.2013.

European Commission (2011) “Entrepreneurship education: enabling teachers as a critical success factor”. Available online at <>. Accessed on 06.06.2013.

Fayolle, Aain and Benoit Gailly (2008) “From craft to science: teaching models and learning processes in entrepreneurship education”. Journal of European Industry Training 32, 7, 569–593.

Fiet, James (2000) “The pedagogical side of entrepreneurship theory”. Journal of Business Venturing 16, 2, 101–117.

Gibb, Allan (2002) “Creating conducive environments for learning and entrepreneurship: living with, dealing with, creating and enjoying uncertainty and complexity”. Industry and Higher Education 16, 135–148.

Hannon, Paul (2006) “Teaching pigeons to dance: sense and meaning in entrepreneurship educa­tion”. Education and Training 48, 5, 296–308.

Hannon, Paul, Lorna Collins, and Alison Smith (2005) “Exploring graduate entrepreneurship: a col­laborative, co-learning based approach for students, entrepreneurs and educators”. Industry and Higher Education 19, 1, 11–24.

Harper, David (2005) “Towards a theory of entrepreneurial teams”. Journal of Business Venturing 23, 6, 613–626.

Heinonen, Jarna (2007) “An entrepreneurial-directed approach to teaching corporate entrepreneur­ship at university level”. Education and Training 49, 4, 310–324.

Heinonen, Jarna and Sari-Anne Poikkijoki (2006) “An entrepreneurial-directed approach to entrepreneurship education: mission impossible?”. Journal of Management Development 25, 1, 80–94.

Hjorth, Daniel and Bengt Johannisson (2007) “Learning as an entrepreneurial process”. In Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education, 46–67. Alain Fayolle, ed. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Honig, Benson (2004) “Entrepreneurship education: towards a model of contingency-based business planning”. Academy of Management Learning and Education 3, 3, 258–273.

Hynes, Briga (1996) “Entrepreneurship education and training – introducing entrepreneurship into non-business disciplines”. Journal of European Industrial Training 20, 8, 1–10.

Jones, Colin (2006) “Constructive alignment: A journey for new eyes.” Journal of Enterprising Culture 14, 4, 291–306.

Katz, Jerome (2003) “The chronology and intellectual trajectory of American entrepreneurship education: 1876–1999”. Journal of Business Venturing 18, 2, 283–300.

Kearney, Paul (1999) Enterprising ways to teach & learn: enterprise principles. West Hobart, Australia: Enterprise Design Associates Pty Ltd.

Korthagen, Fred (2004) “In search of the essence of a good teacher: towards a more holistic approach in teacher education”. Teaching and Teacher Education 20, 1, 77–97.

Krueger, Norris, Michael Reilly, and Alan Carsrud (2000) “Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions”. Journal of Business Venturing 15, 5-6, 411–432.

Lans, Thomas, Vincent Blok, and Renate Wesselink (2013 – in press) “Learning apart and together: towards an integrated competence framework for sustainable entrepreneurship in higher education”. Journal of Cleaner Production.

Lans, Thomas, Judith Gulikers, and Maarten Batterink (2010) “Moving beyond traditional measures of entrepreneurial intentions in a study among life-sciences’ students in the Netherlands”. Research in Post-Compulsory Education 15, 3, 259–274.

Marquardt, Michael and Lisa Horvath (2001) Global teams: how top multinationals span boundaries and cultures with high-speed teamwork. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.

Mayring, Philipp (2000) “Qualitative content analysis. Forum: qualitative social research”. Available online at <>. Accessed on 24.09.2013.

McCorkle, Denny, James Reardon, Joe Alexander, Nathan Kling, Robert Harris, and Vishwanathan Iyer (1999) “Undergraduate marketing students, group projects, and teamwork: the good, the bad, and the ugly?” Journal of Marketing Education 21, 2, 106–117.

McCoshan, Andrew et al. (2010) “Towards greater cooperation and coherence in entrepreneurship education: DG enterprise and industry and DG education and culture”. Available online
at <>. Accessed on 24.09.2013.

McGill, Ian and Liz Beaty (1992) Action learning: a practitioner’s guide. London: Kogan Page.

Mulder, Martin (2012) “Competence-based education and training”. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 18, 3, 305–314.

Nab, Jan, Albert Pilot, Sjaak Brinkkemper, and Hanne Ten Berge (2009) “Authentic competence-based learning in university education in entrepreneurship”. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 9, 1, 20–35.

Nickerson, Jack A. and Todd Zenger, (2004) “A knowledge-based theory of the firm–the problem-solving perspective”. Organization Science 15, 6, 617–632.

Oganisjana, Karine and Harry Matlay (2012) “Entrepreneurship as a dynamic system: a holistic approach to the development of entrepreneurship education”. Industry and Higher Education 26, 3, 207–216.

Popov, Vitaliy, Dine Brinkman, Harm Biemans, Martin Mulder, Andrei Kuznetsov, and Omid Noroozi (2012) “Multicultural student group work in higher education: an explorative case study on challenges as perceived by students”. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 36, 2, 302–317.

Popov, Vitaliy, Harm Biemans, Dine Brinkman, Andrei Kuznetsov, and Martin Mulder (in press) “Facilitation of computer-supported collaborative learning in mixed- versus same-culture dyads: does a collaboration script help?”. The Internet and Higher Education.

Rae, David (2007) “Connecting enterprise and graduate employability: challenges to the higher education culture and curriculum?”. Education and Training 49, 8–9, 605–619.

Rae, David (2003) “Opportunity centred learning: an innovation in enterprise education?”. Education + Training 45, 8–9, 542–549.

Sawyer, Keith (2012) Explaining creativity: the science of human innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shane, Scott and S. Venkataraman (2000) “the promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research”. The Academy of Management Review 25, 1, 217–226.

Sogunro, Olusegun Agboola (2004) “Efficacy of role-playing pedagogy in training leaders: some reflections”. Journal of Management Development 23, 4, 355–371.

Spelt, Elisabeth, Harm Biemans, Hilde Tobi, Pieternel Luning, and Martin Mulder (2009) “Teaching and learning in interdisciplinary higher education: a systematic review”. Educational Psychology Review 21, 4, 365–378.

Täks, Marge, Martin Toding, Päivi Tynjälä, Hasso Kukemelk, and Urve Venesaar (2013 – sub­mitted) “Engineering students’ experiences of studying entrepreneurship”.

Tynjälä, Päivi (2013) “Toward a 3-P model of workplace learning: a literature review.” Vocations and Learning 6, 11–36.

Williams, K. Y. and C. A. O’Reilly (1998) “Demography and diversity in organizations: a review of 40 years of research”. Research in Organizational Behavior 20, 77–140.

Wilson, Karen (2008) “Entrepreneurship education in Europe”. In J. Potter, ed. Entrepreneurship and higher education, 119-138. OECD. Available online at < oecd/pdfs/product/8408031e.pdf>. Accessed on 24.09.2013.

Back to Issue