ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1997
 
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5

INTELLECTUAL OCCUPATION AND COLLABORATIONISM IN THE CULTURAL LIFE OF ESTONIA: REFLECTED IN THE EPISTOLARY COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TUUDUR VETTIK AND ROLAND LAASMÄE; pp. 3–34

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/tr.2013.1.01

Author
Laine Randjärv

Abstract

This article analyses the concepts and phenomena of collaborationism and conformism in Estonia during the Soviet annexation. The focus is on cultural personalities and events connected to choir music and the Song Celebration Movement in 1940–1985. An important source for studying this subject is the correspondence between two creative figures: Tuudur Vettik and Roland Laasmäe. This period in the Estonian Song Celebration history was marked by an ideological pressure from the Communist Party, and creative figures – poets, composers, choirmasters and bodies organising the Song Celebrations – largely depended on the attitude of party leaders and on cooperation with them to ensure their stable and calm day-to-day existence. Rebels could expect a whole range of repressions: imprisonment, deportation to Siberia, or local persecution and boycott. The article briefly delves into the history of the concept of collaborationism by describing its various nuances and periods; manifestations of the phenomenon are analysed in other fields beside the music. Comparison is made with the history of other West European states (incl. former socialist countries), and the experiences of the Baltic states during the period in question are also analysed.


References

Archive Sources

ERA. R-1205-1-383. [Correspondence on commissioning song lyrics and melodies with writers and composers; minutes of meetings of choir song competition jury]. 22 December 1947.

ERA. R-1958-1-13 (1947); ERA. R-1958-1-17 (1948); ERA. R-1205-2-383 (1948).

ERA. R-1958-1-17. [CU of the Estonian SSR general meeting on 30 June 1948 on the repertoire of the 13th All-Estonian Song Celebration.]

ERA. R-1958-1-17. [Minutes of the meeting with composers and poets invited by the lead committee of the 13th All-Estonian Song Celebration]. 1 October 1948

ERA. R-1958-1-17. [Minutes, protocols and speeches of meetings, sittings, plenums of the Composers’ Union of the Estonian SSR]. 18.02.–28.11.1948.

ERA. R-1958-1-26. [General meeting of the ES Composers’ Union on the situation of musical science and criticism in the ESSR]. 13 March 1949.

ERA. R-1958-1-35 (1949); ERA. R-1958-1-36 (1949); ERA. R-1958-1-70 (1953). [Lists of allowed and banned songs].

ERA. R-1958-1-38. [Minutes of the meeting of the Board of the ESSR Composers’ Union]. 12 July 1950 – 24 June 1952.

ERA. R-1958-1-43. [Correspondence in the issue of erasing members of the Composers’ Union]. 12 July 1950 – 24 June 1952.

ERAF. 130-1-6456. [Protocol of Ado Velmet’s interrogation]. 23 November 1950.

ETMM, M 145. File on Harri Kõrvits.

  

References

All-Estonian Song Celebrations. Available online at <http://laulupidu.tartu.ee/muuseum/ index_en.php>. Accessed on 28.01.2013.

All-Union Communist (Bolshevist) Party Central Committee decision On the Newspapers Zvezda and Leningrad. On the Programmes of Drama Theatres and Means for Their Improvement. On the Moving Picture ‘Grand Life’ and On the Opera ‘Great Friendship’ by Vano Mura­deli. Eesti Riiklik Kirjastus, Tallinn, 1951. (In Estonian.)

Annuk, Eve (2003) “Totalitarismi ja/või kolonialismi pained: miks ja kuidas uurida nõukogude aega”. [Pressures of totalitarianism and/or colonialism: why and how to study the Soviet era.] In Võim & kultuur. [Power & culture.] Tartu: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum, Eesti Kultuuriloo ja Folkloristika Keskus.

Armstrong, John A (1968). “Collaboration in World War II: the integral nationalist variant in Eastern Europe”. Journal of Modern History 40, 3, 396–410.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/240210

“Collaborationism Videos”. In VGuide: your online video guide. Available online at <http:// www.ovguide.com/collaborationism-9202a8c04000641f8000000000aa0966#>. Accessed on 28.01.2013.

“collaborator (traitor)”. In Memidex. Free online dictionary/thesaurus and more. Available online at <http://www.memidex.com/collaborator+traitor>. Accessed on 28.01.2013.

Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Adopted by referendum on 28 June 1992. Riigi Teataja. [State Gazette.] Tallinn, 1994.

Database of Tuudur Vettik and Roland Laasmäe. Available online at <http://vettik.tmm.ee> and <http://laasmae.tmm.ee>.

Davies, Peter (2004) Dangerous liaisons: collaboration and World War Two. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Eesti NSV Kultuuriasutuste ajaloo teatmik [Historic encyclopaedia of cultural agencies of the Estonian SSR]. Part V. Loomingulised liidud ja ühingud 1940–1970 [Creative unions and associations 1940–1970.] Tallinn, 1986.

Eesti XIII üldlaulupeo segakoori laulud I–II [13th All-Estonian Song Celebration: songs for mixed choirs I-II.] Tallinn: Ilukirjandus ja Kunst, 1947–1948.

Eesti XIII üldlaulupeo meeskoori laulud I–II [13th All-Estonian Song Celebration: songs for male choirs I-III.] Tallinn: Ilukirjandus ja Kunst, 1948.

Eesti XIII üldlaulupeo lastekoori laulud II [13th All-Estonian Song Celebration: songs for children’s choirs II.] Tallinn: Ilukirjandus ja Kunst, 1948.

Eesti XIII üldlaulupeo naiskoori laulud I–II [13th All-Estonian Song Celebration: Songs for Female Choirs I-II.] Ilukirjandus ja Kunst, Tallinn, 1948.

Eesti Vabariigi Põhiseadus. [Constitution of the Republic of Estonia.] Tallinn: Publication of Riigi Teataja, 1994.

Ernesaks, Gustav (1983) Laine tõuseb. [The wave rises.] Tallinn: Eesti Raamat.

Ernesaks, Gustav (2008) Mu isamaa on minu arm. [My fatherland is my love.] Tallinn: SE&JS, ETMM.

Ezergailis, Andrievs (2004) “Collaboration in German occupied Latvia: offered and rejected”. In Latvija under Nazi German occupation 1941–1945: materials of international conference 12–13 June 2003, Riga, 119–139. (Symposium of the Commission of the Historians of Latvia, 11.) Rīga: Latvijas vēstures instituta apgāds.

Fătu-Tutoveanu, Andrada (2012) “Soviet cultural colonialism: culture and political domination in the late 1940s-early 1950s Romania”. Trames 16 1, 77–93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/tr.2012.1.04

Fulcher Jane F. (2005) The composer as intellectual: music and ideology in France 1914–1940. New York: Oxford University Press.

Glenny, Misha (1992) The fall of Yugoslavia: the third Balkan war. London: Penguin.

Hirschfeld, Gerhard and Louise Wilmot, eds. (1992) Nazi rule and Dutch collaboration: The Netherlands under German Occupation, 1940–45. London: Berg Publishers.

Hirvesoo, Avo (1996) Kõik ilmalaanen laiali… [Spread in four corners of the world…] Tallinn: Kupar.

Hoffmann, Stanley (1968) “Collaborationism in France during World War II”. The Journal of Modern History 40, 3, 375–395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/240209

Hoffmann, Stanley. “Collaboration”. In VGuide: your online video guide. Available online at <http://www.ovguide.com/collaborationism-9202a8c04000641f8000000000aa0966#>. Accessed on 28.01.2013.

Hondromatidis, Iakovos (1978) I Mavri Skia Stin Ellada. [The Black Shadow Over Greece.] Athens.

Humal, Mart. “Heino Eller ja Tartu koolkond“. [Heino Eller and Tartu school.] Available online at <http://www.ooper.parnu.ee/emf/EMF_tekst/HUMAL_HEINO_ELLER_JA_TARTU_KOOLKOND.htm#_ftn25>.Accessed on 28.01.2013.

Ilves, Toomas Hendrik (2007) “Eesti ei kirjuta oma ajalugu umber”. [Estonia is not rewriting its history.] Speech by the President of the Republic of Estonia on the anniversary of the Peace of Tartu on 2 February 2007 in Estonia Concert Hall, 3 February 2007. Available online at Eesti Päevaleht http://www.epl.ee/news/arvamus/toomas-hendrik-ilves-eesti-ei-kirjuta-oma-ajalugu-umber.d?id=51074026>. Accessed on 28.01.2013.

Johani-Mugasto, Helene (1943) “Eesti Riiklike Kunstiansamblite tegevusest”. [Activities of Estonian State Cultural Ensembles during WW II.] Sõjasarv (Moscow) III.

Jones, Jeffrey W. (2005) “Every family has its freak: perceptions of collaboration in Occupied Soviet Russia, 1943–48”. Slavic Review 64, 4, 747–770.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3649911

Kangeris, Kārlis (2004) “Estlands Selbstverwaltung vor der Reform der landeseigenen Verwaltungen (07.03.1942) –Betrachtungen vom lettischen Standpunkt”. In Latvija under Nazi German Occupation 1941–1945. Materials of International Conference 12–13 June 2003, Riga, 98. (Symposium of the Commission of the Historians of Latvia, 11.) Rīga: Latvijas vēstures instituta apgāds.

Kannike, Anu (2006) “Creating cultural continuity in the domestic realm: in case of Soviet Estonia”. Acta Historica Tallinnensia 10, 212–229.

Karjahärm, Toomas (2006) “Kultuurigenotsiid Eestis. Kirjanikud (1940–1953)”. [Cultural genocide in Estonia: writers, 1940–1953.] Acta Historica Tallinnensia 10, 142–177.

Karjahärm, Toomas and Helle-Mai Luts (2005) Kultuurigenotsiid Eestis. Kunstnikud ja muusikud 1940–1953. [Cultural genocide in Estonia: artists and musicians 1940–1953]. Tallinn: Argo.

Karjahärm, Toomas and Väino Sirk (2007) Kohanemine ja vastupanu: Eesti haritlaskond 1940–1987. [Conformism and resistance: Estonian intellectuals 1940–1987.] Tallinn: Argo.

Kasekamp, Andres (2011) Balti riikide ajalugu. [History of Baltic states.] Tallinn: Varrak.

Kasekamp, Andres. The Ideological Roots of Estonian Collaboration during the Nazi Occupation. In The Baltic countries under occupation, Soviet and Nazi rule 1939–1991, 85–95. Kõll, Anu-Mai, ed. (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Baltica Stockholmiensia, 23.) Stock­holm.

Kitson, Simon (with Hanna Diamond) (2005) Vichy, resistance, liberation: essays in honour of Rod Kedward. Oxford: Berg.

Kreegipuu, Tiiu (2005) Nõukogude kultuuripoliitika printsiibid ja rakendused Eesti NSV-s aastatel 1944–1954 kirjanduse ja trükiajakirjanduse näitel. [Soviet cultural policy principles and applications in the Estonian SSR in 1944–1954 on the example of literature and printed press.] Master’s thesis manuscript. Tartu: University of Tartu.

Kõlar, Anu (2010) Cyrillus Kreek ja Eesti muusikaelu. [Cyrillus Kreek and Estonian music life.] Dissertation on music history. Manuscript. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre.

Kõll, Anu-Mai, ed. (2003) The Baltic countries under occupation, Soviet and Nazi rule 1939-1991. (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Baltica Stockholmiensia, 23.) Stockholm.

Laas, Jaan (2010) Teadus diktatuuri kütkeis: Eesti teadusest ja kõrgharidusest natsionaal­sotsialist­liku ja sovetliku teaduspoliitika raames. [Science in the trap of dictatorship: Estonian sciences and higher education within the National Socialist and Soviet scientific policy.] Tallinn: Argo.

Laasi, Evald (1992) Vastupanuliikumine Eestis aastail 1944–1949. [Resistance in Estonia in 1944–1949.] Tallinn: AS Nõmm & Co.

Laasik, Andres. Vallatud kurvid, mis polnud nõukogulikud. [Frisky curves that were not Soviet.] Available online at Eesti Päevaleht <http://www.epl.ee/news/kultuur/vallatud-kurvid-mis-polnud-noukogulikud.d?id=64543524>. Accsessed on 28.01.2013.

Lippus, Urve (2008) “Eesti muusika kaotused Nõukogude okupatsiooni läbi”. [Losses of Estonian music through Soviet Occupation.] In White book on the losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. Tallinn.

Malcolm, Noel (1996) Bosnia: a short history. London: Macmillian.

Márai, Sándor (2006) Maa, maa!... [Earth, earth!] Tallinn: Varrak.

Mark, Heinrich (1996) “Ajaloolase kreedo. Mälestusi 10-päevasest koostööst Tartu Ülikooli rektori professor Hans Kruusiga”. [Creed of historian: memories of the ten days of cooperation with the rector of the University of Tartu Hans Kruus.] Kleio. Ajaloo Ajakiri 1, 33–34.

Mertelsmann, Olaf (2004) “Huvitav konverents Riias”. [Interesting conference in Riga: Loss and renewal of national elite in the Baltic states in 1939–1991.] Tuna. Ajalookultuuri Ajakiri 3, 146–147.

Miller, Voldemar (1994). “Mälestusi Otto Liivist”. [Memories of Otto Liiv.] Kleio. Ajaloo Ajakiri 10, 54–57.

“Muusikateaduse ja -kriitika olukorrast Eesti NSV-s”. [Situation of musicology and music criticism in the Estonian SSR.] Sirp ja Vasar 19 March 1949.

Oja, Enn (1999) “Transvaal XIII üldlaulupeo umber”. [Crossing of Swords over the 13th Song Celebration.] Sirp 4 June1999, 10.

Olesk, Sirje (2002) “Neljakümnendad I: murrang kodumaal”. [The forties I: dramatic changes in homeland.] In Tõdede vankuval müüril, 67–88. [On a rickety wall of truths: articles on time and poetry.] Tartu: Estonian Literary Museum.

Põhiseaduse tulek. Kogumik [The Coming of the Constitution.] Tallinn: SE&JS.

Rahi-Tamm, Aigi and Andres Kahar (2009) „Deportation operation Priboy in 1949”. In Estonia since 1944. Reports of the Estonian international commission for the investigation of crimes against humanity, 429–460. T. Hiio, M. Maripuu, and I. Paavle, eds. Tallinn.

Raid, Lembit (1995) “Kas peremees või käsualune? Parteiarhiivi materjalidest III”. [Master or Lackey: materials of the Communist Party archive. Part III.] Kleio. Ajaloo Ajakiri 12, 42–55.

Randjärv, Laine (2012) Sillad üle piiride. [Bridges Across Borders.]. Tallinn: SE&JS.

Raud, Rein (2012) “Austa meest, mitte mehe mundrit”. [Honour the man, not his uniform.] Eesti Päevaleht 4 January 2012.

Repertoire booklets of All-Estonian Song Celebrations 1947–1990. Digital collection of the Estonian National Library available online at <http://digar.nlib.ee/digar/esileht>. Accessed on 14.02.2013.

Saguier, Eduardo R. (2003) “Collaborationism with state terrorism in Argentine culture during the last dictatorship (1976-83)”. 9 September 2003. Available online at < http:// www.youdebate.com/cgi-bin/scarecrow/topic.cgi?forum=17&topic=454>. Accessed on 28.01.2013.

Sarv, Enn (1997) Õiguse vastu ei saa ükski. [No one can stand in the way of justice.] Tartu.

Shostakovich, Dmitri (2002) Testimony. Memoires of Dmitri Shostakovich. Written by Solomon Volkov. Tallinn: Vagabund. (In Estonian.)

Soosaar, Enn (2007) Isa ja aeg. [Father and time.] (Loomingu Raamatukogu, 5.) Tallinn.

Strods, Heinrihs(2004) “Extermination of activists and supporters of the first Bolshevik occupation in 1941–1945”. In Latvija under Nazi German occupation 1941–1945: materials of inter­national conference 12–13 June 2003, Riga, 82. (Symposium of the Commission of the Historians of Latvia, 11.) Rīga: Latvijas vēstures instituta apgāds.

Taagepera, Rein (1978). “Nationalism, collaborationism, and new-leftism”. In A case study of a Soviet republic: the Estonian SSR, 75–103. Tõnu Parming and Elmar Järvesoo, eds. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Tammela, Hiljar and Olev Liivik (2010) “Kas Eesti lähiajaloos on endiselt ‘valgeid laike’?”. [Does Estonia’s recent history still contain “patches of white”?] Tuna. Ajalookultuuri Ajakiri 4, 129–135.

Tangenes, Gisle (2006) “Culture: the world according to Quisling” Bits of News. Available online at <http://www.bitsofnews.com/content/view/3965/42/>. Accessed on 28.01.2013.

Tarvel, Enn (2005) “Kas ajalugu saab kirjutada objektiivselt?”. [Can history be written objectively?] Tuna. Ajalookultuuri Ajakiri 3, 7–8.

“The decision of the Central Committee of the EC(b)P on measures for fulfilling the 10 February 1948 decision of the AC(b)P Central Committee on the opera ‘Great friendship’ by Vano Muradeli”. Sirp ja Vasar6 March 1948. (In Estonian.)

“Tugevdada võitlust kodanlike natsionalistide ja nende käsilaste vastu”. [One should intensify our fight against bourgeois nationalists and their lackeys.] Sirp ja Vasar 6 May 1950, 4–5.

“Verbatim records of the 8th Plenum of the EC(b)P. I–XI”. Translated from Russian by Mart Arold. Comments by Jaak Isotamm. Annotated by: Viktor Niitsoo. Akadeemia, 1999, 1. (In Estonian.)

Viires, Ants (2003) “Eesti ajalugu stalinlikus haardes”. [Estonian history in Stalinist grip.] Tuna. Ajalookultuuri Ajakiri 1.

Vseviov, David (2009) “Lambanahka varjunud hundid”. [Wolves disguised in sheep skin.] In Aja vaimud: Kirjutisi 1996–2009 [Spirits of the times: writings 1996–2009.] Tallinn: Valgus.

Weiner, Amir and Aigi Rahi-Tamm (2012) “Getting to know you: the Soviet surveillance system, 1939-1957”. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 13, 1, 5–45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/kri.2012.0011

Weiss-Wendt, Anton (2009) Murdered without hatred: Estonians and the Holocaust. (Religion, Theology, and the Holocaust.) Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

 


Back to Issue