eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2022): 0.2
PDF | DOI: 10.3176/tr.2012.1.02

Vlad Vernygora, Natalia Chaban, Chae-Deug Yi

This paper contributes to the debate on the multidimensional phenomenon of Asian regional integration. Considering one case study – a regional grouping known as ‘ASEAN+3’ – this paper offsets it against relevant achievements on the European continent. Admitting that direct application of the EU’s model to the ASEAN+3 frame­works is fruitless, this study uses a different approach, treating the EU’s legal composition as a leading tool to assess if the European ‘know how’ in regional integration could be applied to facilitate the inter-relations within the ASEAN+3.
    Three barriers to regional integration are explored: differing democratic practices, dominating intergovernmental interactions, and the globally (vs. regionally) orientated China. Yet, this paper argues that the aforementioned challenges have a potential not only to subvert, but, paradoxically, reinforce the Asian integration process, particularly within the ASEAN+3 grouping.


“ASEAN+3 countries deepen financial cooperation” (2011). People’s Daily Online. 6 May. Available from <> [accessed October 2011].

“ASEAN Plus Three cooperation”. Official Web-portal of the ASEAN. Available from <> [accessed October 2011].

“ASEAN Summit”. Official Web-portal of the ASEAN. Available from <http://www.asean. org/20100.htm> [accessed October 2011].

Austermann, Frauke (2011) “Bridging the sovereignty-gap of EU-China relations”. In EU External Affairs Review 37–59. July.

Börzel, Tanja A. and Thomas Risse (2009) “Diffusing (Inter-) regionalism: the EU as a model of regional integration”. In KFG Working Paper 7. Berlin: Freie Universitat Berlin.

Bowring, Philip (2005) “Modeling Korean unification”. The New York Times, 27 September. Available from <> [accessed October 2011].

Bull, George W (1991) “Introduction”. In Jean Monnet: the path to European Unity, xii-xxii, D. Brinkley and C. Hackett, eds. St. Martin’s Press.

Bush, Richard (2011) “As number one, China to face hour of choice”. The Korea Times. 11 August (as quoted from YaleGlobal).

Chaban, Natalia (2011) “The EU’s imagery as a social, developmental and environmental actor in Asia”. In EU External Affairs Review, 5–23, July.

Ding, Yibing (2007) “Symmetry of economic shocks and regional economic cooperation: a comparative empirical analysis between East Asia and the Euro area”. In The EU’s experience in integration: a model for ASEAN+3?, 49–62, L. Dong and G. Heiduk, eds. Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang.

Hatoyama, Yukio (2009) “Address at the 64th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations”. 24 September. New York. Available from < hatoyama/statement/200909/ehat_0924c_e.html> [accessed October 2011].

Jora, Silviu (2007) “Patterns of development through ‘Europeanization’ – towards a universal modus operandi?”. In The EU’s experience in integration: a model for ASEAN+3?, 63–78, L. Dong and G. Heiduk, eds. Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang.

Keating, Michael (1998) “Is there a regional level of government in Europe”. In Regions in Europe, 11–29. P. Le Galès and C. Lequesne, eds. London; New York: Routledge.

 Kupchan, Charles (2010) “As nationalism rises, will the European Union fall?”. The Washington Post. 29 August. Available from 2010/08/27/AR2010082702138.html> [accessed November 2011].

“Leaders of China, Japan, South Korea discuss cooperation” (2011). Xinhua. 19 November. Available from < htm> [accessed November 2011].

Michalski, Anna and Christine Cheyne (2007) “New Zealand and the EU: approaches to socio-economic change in a globalising world”. In Europe-New Zealand research series paper. Vol. 1, No. 1, June. Auckland: Europe Institute, the University of Auckland.

McCreedy, Charlie (2009) Remarks. 30 October. Auckland Chamber of Commerce, New Zealand.

Mitrany, David (1975) “The process of international government (1932)”. In The Functional Theory of Politics, 85–104. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Moravcsik, Andrew (2008) The choice for Europe: social purpose and state power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. .

Murray, Philomena (2010a) “Comparative regional integration in the EU and East Asia: moving beyond integration snobbery”. International Politics 47, 3–4, 308–323.

Murray, Philomena (2010b) “East Asian regionalism and EU studies”. European Integration 32, 6, 597–616.

Murray, Philomena (2010c) Regionalism and community: Australia’s options in the Asia-Pacific. Barton, ACT: Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

Natalegawa, Marty M. (2011) “Statement at the General Debate of the 66th Session of the UN General Assembly”. 26 September 2011. New York.

Nugent, Neill (1999) The government and politics of the European Union. 4th ed. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.

“Open Method of Coordination”. Official Web-portal of the European Union. Available from [accessed October 2011].

Orlow, Dietrich (1995) A history of modern Germany: 1871 to present. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Paet, Urmas (2006) “Main guidelines of Estonia’s foreign policy”. Address to Riigikogu, 6 June. Available from <> [accessed October 2011].

Papic, Marko (2011) “The divided states of Europe”. Stratfor, 28 June. Available from <> [accessed December 2011].

“Parliament approves Treaty change to allow stability mechanism” (2011). Official Web-portal of the European Union. Available from < 20110322FCS16061/003/html/Parliament-approves-Treaty-change-to-allow-stability-mechanism> [accessed October 2011].

Pedersen, Thomas (1998) Germany, France, and the integration of Europe: a realist interpretation. London and New York: Pinter Publishers.

“Reunification tax” (2011). The Korea Times. 19 July.

Rhee, Yeongseap and Hee-Yul Chai (2007) “Comparison financial integration process between East Asia and Europe”. In The EU’s experience in integration: a model for ASEAN+3?, 25–47, L. Dong and G. Heiduk, eds. Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang.

Sally, Razeen (2009) “The truth about Asian integration”. The Wall Street Journal, 28 October.

Sang-hun, Choe (2011) “Twice-rejected S. Korean town lands 2018 Winter Games”. The New York Times, 7 July. Available from <> [accessed October 2011].

Smith, Michael (2004) Europe’s Foreign and Security Policy. The institutionalization of coopera­tion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

“The transformation and sustainability of European political order”. ARENA Official Web-portal.

Available from <> [accessed October 2011].

Vernygora, Vlad and Natalia Chaban (2008a) “An invisible giant: a ‘snapshot’ of the EU as a subject of juridical interactions”. In Socio-economic environment: harmonisation in the EU Ccountries of Baltic Sea Rim, 153–166. A. Kirch and T. Kerikmae, eds. Tallinn: Institute for European Studies, International University Audentes Collection.

Vernygora, Vlad and Natalia Chaban (2008b) “New Europe and its neo-regionalism: the working case of the Community of Democratic Choice”. Trames 12, 2, 127–150.

Wang, Xueyu (2007) “Integration and the peaceful change of regional order: European experience and East Asian strategic choice”. In The EU’s experience in integration: a model for ASEAN+3?, 93–115, L. Dong and G. Heiduk, eds. Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang.

Zhu, Jiancheng (2007) “Enlightenment of European integration to ASEAN+3”. In The EU’s experience in integration: a model for ASEAN+3?, 79–90, L. Dong and G. Heiduk, eds. Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang.

“12th ASEAN+3 Foreign Ministers meeting” (2011). The Official Web-portal of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 26 July. Available from < 2011/7/0726_01.html> [accessed October 2011].

Back to Issue