eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2022): 0.2
PDF | DOI: 10.3176/tr.2012.1.03

Anu Aavik, Toivo Aavik

This study explores the differences and similarities in self-reported child-rearing activities and personal values between Estonian and Russian parents in Estonia using archival data. Participants included 236 Estonian and 111 Russian parents whose children, aged 10–16, attend regular schools. Parenting practices were evaluated using the QTP (Questionnaire for Rearing Tasks), and personal values using the EVI (Estonian Value Inventory). Applying factorial MANOVA led to the conclusion that parents’ education and ethnicity are statistically significant factors connecting their values and child-rearing activities. Some cross-cultural differences were also found: Estonians rate highly values like Benevolence, while Russians appreciate Conservatism. Results also suggest that Russian parents set limits and teach social norms to their child more frequently than Estonian parents, and Estonian parents are more frequently concerned about the acceptance and psychological environment of their child than Russian parents. Russian parents also put more time into raising their children than Estonians.


Aavik, A., T. Aavik, and J. Kõrgesaar (2006) “Parenting practices and personal values: comparison between parents of institutionalized and non-institutionalized adolescents”. Trames 10, 1, 44–56.

Aavik, T. and J. Allik (2002) “The structure of Estonian personal values: a lexical approach”. European Journal of Personality 16, 221–235.

Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein (2000) “Attitudes and the attitude-behavior relation: reasoned and automatic processes”. In European Review of Social Psychology, 1–28. W. Stroebe and M. Hewstone, eds. New York: Wiley.

Akhtar, S. (1995) “A third individuation: immigration, identity, and the psychoanalytic process”. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 43, 1051–1084.

Berry, J. (1992) “Acculturation and adaption into a new society”. International migration 30, 69–85.

Bornstein, M. H. and C. S. L. Cheah (2006) “The place of ‘culture and parenting’ in the ecological contextual perspective on developmental science”. In Parenting beliefs, behaviors, and parent-child relations, 3–34. K. H. Rubin and O. B. Chung, eds. New York: Psychology Press.

Darling, N. and L. Steinberg (1993) “Parenting style as context: an integrative model”. Psychological Bulletin 113, 487–496.

Fein, L. C. (2005) “Symbolic boundaries and national borders: the construction of an Estonian Russian identity”. Nationalities Papers 33, 3, 333–344.

Forehand, R. and B. A. Kotchick (1996) “Cultural diversity: a wake-up call for parent training”. Behavior Therapy 27, 187–206.

Hart, C. H., D. A., Nelson, C. C. Robinson, S. Frost Olsen, and M. K. McNeilly-Choque (1998) “Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages”. Developmental Psychology 34, 4, 687–697.

Harwood, R. L., W.P. Handwerker, A. Schoelmerich, and B. Leyendecker (2001) “Ethnic category labels, parental beliefs, and the contextualized individual: an exploration of the individualism – sociocentrism debate”. Parenting: Science and Practice, 1, 3, 217–236.

Ispa, J. M. (1994) “Child rearing ideas and feelings of Russian and American mothers and early childhood teachers: some comparisons”. Advances in Early Education and Day Care 6, 235–257.

Kohn, M. L. (1963) “Social class and parent-child relationships: an interpretation”. American Journal of Sociology 68, 471–480.

Kotchick, B. A. and R. Forehand (2002) “Putting parenting in perspective: a discussion of the con­textual factors that shape parenting practices”. Journal of Child and Family Studies 11, 3, 255–269.

Lambert, W. E. (1987) “The fate of old-country values in a new land: a cross-national study of child rearing”. Canadian Psychology 28, 1, 9–20.

Lefley, H. P. (1976) “Acculturation, child rearing and self-esteem in two North American Indian tribes”. Ethos 4, 385–401.

Pavelson, M. (1997) “Young non-Estonians: status quo and the perspective to integration”. In P. Järve, ed. Vene noored Eestis: sotsioloogiline mosaiik, 219–234. [Young Russian people in Estonia: a sociological mosaic.] Tallinn: Avita.

Nimmerfeldt, G., J. Schulze, and M. Taru (2011). “The Relationship between Integration Dimensions among Second Generation Russians in Estonia“. Studies of Transition States and Societies, 3,1, 76–91.

Realo, A., and J. Allik (1999) “A cross-cultural study of collectivism: a comparison of American, Estonian and Russian students”. The Journal of Social Psychology 139, 2, 133–142.

Rink, K., W. Ott, J. Schlee, and M. Wittrock, eds. (2000) Youngsters between freedom and social limits. Vol. 3. Oldenburg: Carl von Ossietzky Universitat.

Saar, A. and K. Niglas (2001) “Estonian and Russian parental attitudes to childrearing and play”. Early Child development and Care 168, 39–47.

Schwartz, S. H. (1992) “Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries”. InAdvances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 25, 1–65. M. Zanna, ed. New York: Academic.

Smith, P. B. and S. H. Schwartz (1997) “Values”. In Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, 79–118. J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall, and C. Kagitcibasi, eds. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Statistics Estonia (2008) Population [data fail]. Available from public web site,

Tammaru, T. (1997) “Venelaste kohanemise regionaalsed erinevused: Lasnamäe, Tartu ja Pärnu venelaste võrdlus”. [Regional differences in Russians adaptation: comparison of Russians living in Lasnamae, Tartu and Parnu.] In Vene noored Eestis: sotsioloogiline mosaiik, 213–217. P. Järve, ed. [Young Russian people in Estonia: a sociological mosaic.] Tallinn: Avita.

Tudge, J., D. Hogan, S. Lee, P. Tammeveski, M. Meltsas, N. Kulakova, et al. (1999) “Cultural heterogeneity: parental values and beliefs and their preschoolers’ activities in the United States, South Korea, Russia and Estonia”. In Children’s engagement in the world, 62–96. A. Goncu, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tudge, J. R. H., D. M. Hogan, I. A. Snezhkova, N. N. Kulakovac, and K. E. Etz (2000) “Parents’ child-rearing values and beliefs in the United States and Russia: the impact of culture and social class”. Infant and Child Development 9, 105–121.<105::AID-ICD222>3.0.CO;2-Y

Tulviste, T., and M. Ahtonen (2007) “Child-rearing values of Estonian and Finnish mothers and fathers”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 38, 2, 137–155.

Vetik, R. (1995) “Identity development and political adjustment in Estonia: research note”. World Affairs 157, 147–148.

Vetik, R., M. Lauristin, J. Helemäe, et al (2008). Eesti ühiskonna integratsiooni monitooring 2008. [Monitoring of integration in Estonian society 2008.] Tallinn: Integratsiooni Sihtasutus ja Rahvastikuministri Büroo.

Wang, S. and C. S. Tamis-LeMonda (2003) “Do child-rearing values in Taiwan and the United States reflect cultural values of collectivism and individualism?”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 34, 629–642.

Back to Issue