Number 4 2006

Renate Pajusalu, Death of a Demonstrative: Person and Time. The Case of Estonian too
(full article in PDF format)
Abstract. Demonstratives comprise different systems in different Estonian dialect areas. The number of demonstrative pronouns in these systems ranges from one to three. The general tendency seems to be a decrease in the number of demonstrative pronouns in all dialectal varieties. The present article analyses the disintegration of two demonstrative systems. The article will first discuss the transformation of the South Estonian three-term demonstrative system into a two-term system. The remains of the two-term demonstrative system of Standard Estonian will then be analysed on the basis of the occurrence of the demonstrative too, which can probably be explained as a South Estonian influence. What is common to these cases is that the disappearing demonstrative starts to denote a human referent. However, this still happens in different ways and for different reasons.
Keywords: Estonian, demonstratives, referentiality, grammaticalization.

Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang, Estonian Clause Patterns — from Finno-Ugric to Standard Average European
(full article in PDF format)
Abstract. Estonian clauses can be divided into two basic patterns: unmarked basic clauses and marked basic clauses, depending on whether the clause-initial topic is the subject or not. The main clausal topic of the unmarked basic clause has the typical coding and behavioural properties of the subject. The main clausal topic of the marked basic clauses is less grammaticalized than in the case of the unmarked basic clause. It may be realized not as a prototypical grammatical subject but as an adverbial (or an oblique or a direct object). If the sentence has the subject, it is a non-prototypical subject and its neutral position is after the verb (basic word order XVS). The main types of marked basic clauses include existential, possessive, source-marking resultative, and experiential clauses. The marked possessive, resultative and experiential clauses have their counterparts among unmarked clauses. Current trends in language use show expanding use of unmarked possessive and experiential basic clauses at the expense of marked clauses. This could be seen both as a language contact-induced shift from the Finno-Ugric clause patterns towards Standard Average European (SAE) patterns and as (just) simplification of the internal structure of the language. Resultative constructions show a tendency to use the focussed clause-final subject in both clause patterns.
Keywords: Estonian, Finnish, Finno-Ugric, SAE, syntax, topic, subject, grammaticalization, unmarked basic clauses, marked basic clauses, existential clauses, possessive clauses, resultative clauses, experiential clauses, syntactic change.

V. K. Kel'makov, Lingvistitšeskie kur'jezy v permistike I
V. K. K e l' m a k o v, Linguistische Kuriositäten in der permistik (I.)
(full article in PDF format)
Abstract. The Permic languages are hardly alone in containing some words the origin, form and meaning of which have emerged as the result of researcher mistakes. Having thus appeared by mistake and/or, for various other reasons, having received a non-primordial phonetic form, they start living their own life, possibly suggesting some curious linguistic decisions to some theorists and pragmatists. 1. The Udmurt word sodzjam 'a handful of flax', for example, etymologically associated with the Komi sodz 'handful' actually appeared in this phonetic form as one of the manuscripts of the 18th century was misread by a researcher. 2. The "Odyssey" of the Udmurt -kudyr- 'beaver' (B. Munkácsi) > (a) 'kudyri 'curly' (~ Komi *kudyri) or (b) ku dur 'fur edging' has also been caused by some inaccuracy on the part of Udmurt philologists.
Keywords: Udmurt, etymology.

N. G. Kuznecova, E. V. Usenkova, Inferentsial v nenetskom jazyke
N. G. K u z n e c o v a, E. V. U s e n k o v a, The Inferential in Nenets
(full article in PDF format)
Abstract. The point of the article is to give a systematic description of the Inferential Mood in Nenets — one of the Northern Samoyed languages. In the plane of expression this mood is represented by a regular paradigm based upon the opposition of 3 tenses (Present, Past, Future), 3 persons (1st, 2nd, 3rd), 3 numbers (singular, dual, plural), and 3 types of conjugation (subjective, objective, reflexive). The affix of the Inferential is placed between the temporal affixes (adjusted to the verb-stem) and finite verbal markers common for all Nenets moods. The paradigmatic meaning of the Inferential is inference based either on the result of some situation (Inferentive) or on the logical consideration of a general character (Presumptive). The Inferential functions in declarative sentences. The Inferential may also be used to render the meanings of the other moods (Interrogative, Optative, Imperative, Conjunctive, Debitive, Indicative).
Keywords: Nenets, Inferential Mood, Inferentive, Presumptive.


Jaan Õispuu, Zum Jubiläum eines karelischen Sprachwissenschaftlers. Pekka Zajkov — 60
(full article in PDF format)

E. A. C y p a n o v, Grammatitšeskie kategorii glagola v komi jazyke, Syktyvkar 2005. Rets. Jevgenij Igušev
(full article in PDF format)

L. A. A b u k a j e v a, Ekspressivnyje sintaksitšeskie konstruktsii v marijskom jazyke. Dissertatsija na soiskanie utšenoj stepeni doktora filologitšeskich nauk, Joškar-Ola 2005. Rets. Anatolij Kuklin
(full article in PDF format)

T. A. G u d y r e v a, Neologizmy v komi literaturnom jazyke. Dissertatsija na soiskanie utšenoj stepeni kandidata filologitšeskich nauk, Syktyvkar 2005. Rets. N. I. Isanbajev
(full article in PDF format)

Väino Klaus, In memoriam Rudolf Karelson
(full article in PDF format)

Auf der Titelseite: Livische Volkstrachten (Foto Mati Hint)