ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1952
 
Proceeding cover
proceedings
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 1.045
Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals and physico-chemical parameters in the groundwater of Karak District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; pp. 297–306
PDF | 10.3176/proc.2021.3.08

Authors
Asif Khan, Muhammad Naeem, Ivar Zekker, Muhammad Balal Arian, Greg Michalski, Sayed Zeeshan, Hameed ul Haq, Muhammad Ikram, Abbas Khan, Fazle Subhan, Yahya Jani, Zane Vincevica-Gaile, Muhammad Zahoor, Idrees Khan, Muhammad Ishaq Ali Shah
Abstract

Groundwater heavy metal pollution is a major concern all around the world. For the assessment of heavy metals and physico-chemical characteristics, groundwater samples were collected from different locations of the Karak District, Pakistan. With the help of the global information system device (GIS), groundwater samples were collected and studied from 47 locations. The present study focused on the water table (WT), water source depth (WSD), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), lead (Pb(II)), silver (Ag(I)), iron (Fe(II)) and chromium (Cr(VI)) parameters. Heavy metals were analyzed by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Pearson’s matrix of correlation showed relationships between several parameters, such as the EC and the TDS which had close interactions between all the three different groundwater samples (collected by hand pump (HP), bore holes (BH) and tube wells (TW)). The strong correlation was detected in all the sources of water between the TDS and the EC, the regression coefficient (r) of which was 1. In the hierarchical clustering (by dendrograms) the HP samples show two clusters: Cluster 1 contains seven parameters and Cluster 2 has four parameters. The BH samples have two clusters: Cluster 1 contains three parameters and Cluster 2 has eight parameters. The TW dendrogram also shows two clusters: Cluster 1 contains six parameters while Cluster 2 has five parameters.

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