eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Proceeding cover
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2022): 0.9
Life cycle analysis of electrical motor-drive system based on electrical machine type; pp. 162–177

Anton Rassõlkin, Anouar Belahcen, Ants Kallaste, Toomas Vaimann, Dmitry Vyacheslavovich Lukichev, Svetlana Orlova, Hamidreza Heidari, Bilal Asad, Jaime Pando Acedo

 Nowadays a lot of attention is paid on the issues of global warming and climate change. Human impact on the environment is noticeable from the aspect of resource life cycles. Energy efficiency requirements have led to the research and development of alternative technologies for the rotating electrical machines. The life cycle assessment brings out important procedures which can help to reduce machines’ impact on the environment, being therefore an instrument for the assessment of the influence of particular products on the environment from cradle to grave – beginning with working out the materials, followed by manufacturing, transporting, marketing, use, and recycling. Three types of electrical machines have been chosen for comparison: synchronous reluctance motor, permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and induction motor. The article presents a life cycle assessment case study based on experimental results of motors designed by the research group.


1. Waide, P. and Brunner, C. U. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems. IEA Energy Papers, No. 2011/07. OECD Publishing, Paris, 2011.

2. IEC 60034-30-1:2014 Rotating electrical machines – Part 30-1: Efficiency classes of line operated AC motors (IE code), 2014. 

3. Ferreira, F. J. T. E. and De Almeida, A. T. Reducing energy costs in electric-motor-driven systems: Savings through output power reduction and energy regeneration. IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., 2018, 24(1), 84–97. MIAS.2016.2600685

4. Orosz, T. Evolution and modern approaches of the power transformer cost optimization methods. Period. Polytech. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., 2019, 63(1), 37–50.

5. Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products. OJ, 2009, L 285, 31.10.

6. ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework.

7. ISO 14044:2006 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines.

8. Orlova, S., Rassõlkin, A., Kallaste, A., Vaimann, T., and Belahcen, A. Lifecycle analysis of different motors from the standpoint of environmental impact. Latv. J. Phys. Tech. Sci., 2016, 53(6), 37–46.

9. Martinez, E., Andrada, P., Blanque, B., Torrent, M., Perat, J. I., and Sanchez, J. A. Environmental and life cycle cost analysis of a switched reluctance motor. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines, September 6–9, 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal. IEEE, 2009, 1–4.

10. Musuroi, S., Sorandaru, C., Greconici, M., Olarescu, V. N., and Weinman, M. Low-cost ferrite permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance rotor an alternative solution for rare earth permanent magnet synchronous motors. In Proceedings of the IECON 2013 – 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, November 10–13, 2013, Vienna, Austria. IEEE, 2014, 2966–2970.

11. Boldea, I., Tutelea, L. N., Parsa, L., and Dorrell, D. Automotive Electric Propulsion Systems With Reduced or No Permanent Magnets: An Overview. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2014, 61(10), 5696–5711.

12. Bianchi, N., Bolognani, S., Carraro, E., Castiello, M., and Fornasiero, E. Electric Vehicle Traction Based on Synchronous Reluctance Motors. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2016, 52(6), 4762–4769.

13. Degano, M., Carraro, E., and Bianchi, N. Selection Criteria and Robust Optimization of a Traction PM-Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2015, 51(6), 4383–4391.

14. Janson, K., Belahcen, A., Kallaste, A., and Vaimann, T. Permanent magnet reluctance motor. Estonian Patent P201400013, 15 July 2016.

15. Mahajan, S. Encyclopedia of materials: Science and Technology, 1st Edition. Elsevier, 2001.

16. Shokrollahi, H. and Janghorban, K. Soft magnetic com­posite materials (SMCs). J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, 189(1), 1–12.

17. Alatalo, M., Lundmark, S. T., and Grunditz, E. A. Electric machine design for traction applications considering recycling aspects-review and new solution. In Proceedings of the IECON 2011 – 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, November 7–10, 2011, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. IEEE, 2012, 1836–1841.

18. SKF. INSOCOAT® bearings increase service life in a hot gas fan.

19. Kallaste, A., Vaimann, T., and Belahcen, A. Influence of magnet material selection on the design of slow-speed permanent magnet synchronous generators for wind applications. Elektron. ir Elektrotechnika, 2017, 23(1), 31–38.

20. Pellegrino, G., Jahns, T. M., Bianchi, N., Soong, W., and Cupertino, F. The Rediscovery of Synchronous Reluctance and Ferrite Permanent Magnet Motors. Springer International Publishing, 2016.

21. Vaimann, T., Kallaste, A., Kilk, A., and Belahcen, A. Magnetic properties of reduced Dy NdFeB permanent magnets and their usage in electrical machines. In Proceedings of the IEEE AFRICON Conference, September 9–12, 2013, Pointe-Aux-Piments, Mauritius

22. Melentjev, S., Belahcen, A., Kallaste, A., Rassõlkin, A., and Vaimann, T. Review of loss calculation reduction control methods of permanent magnet assisted reluctance drive. In Proceedings of the Electric Power Quality and Supply Reliability (PQ), August 29–31, 2016, Tallinn, Estonia. IEEE, 2016, 199–206.

23. Ghahfarokhi, P. S., Belahcen, A., Kallaste, A., Vaimann, T., Gerokov, L., and Rassolkin, A. Thermal Analysis of a SynRM Using a Thermal Network and a Hybrid Model. In Proceedings of the XIII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), September 3–6, 2018, Alexandroupoli, Greece. IEEE, 2008, 2682–2688.

24. Final Implementation Report for Directives 2002/96/EC and 2012/19/EU on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): 2013–2015.

25. Harris, A. ORGALIME Guide to the scope of the WEEE and RoHS directives. Brussels, 2006.

26. International Energy Agency (IEA). World Energy Outlook 2016, IEA, Paris.

27. Karlsson, B. and Järrhed, J.-O. Recycling of electrical motors by automatic disassembly. Meas. Sci. Technol., 2000, 11(4), 350–357.

28. Lundmark, S. T. and Alatalo, M. A segmented claw-pole motor for traction applications considering recycling aspects. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), March 27–30, 2013, Monte Carlo, Monaco. IEEE, 2013, 1–6.

29. Yuksel, T. and Baylakoglu, I. Recycling of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Benchmarking of Disassembly Methods and Cost Analysis. In Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, May 7–10, 2007, Orlando, FL, USA. IEEE, 2007, 222–226.

30. Binnemans, K., Jones, P. T., Blanpain, B., Van Gerven, T., Yang, Y., Walton, A., and Buchert, M. Recycling of rare earths: a critical review. J. Cleaner Prod., 2013, 51, 1–22.

31. Elwert, T., Goldmann, D., Römer, F., Buchert, M., Merz, C., Schueler, D., and Sutter, J. Current developments and challenges in the recycling of key components of (hybrid) electric vehicles. Recycling, 2015, 1(1), 25–60.

32. Högberg, S., Bendixen, F. B., Mijatovic, N., Jensen, B. B., and Holbøll, J. Influence of demagnetization-temperature on magnetic performance of recycled Nd-Fe-B magnets. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Electric Machines & Drives Conference (IEMDC), May 10–13, 2015, Coeur d’Alene, ID, USA. IEEE, 2006, 1242–1246.
33. SKF. Rolling bearings and seals in electric motors and generators: A handbook for the industrial designer and end-user. SKF Group, 2013.

34. Tong, C., Wu, F., Zheng, P., Yu, B., Sui, Y., and Cheng, L. Investigation of magnetically isolated multiphase modular permanent-magnet synchronous machinery series for wheel-driving electric vehicles. IEEE Trans. Magn., 2014, 50(11), 1–4.

35. Ouyang, W., Huang, S., Good, A., and Lipo, T. A. Modular permanent magnet machine based on soft magnetic composite. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, September 27–29, 2005, Nanjing, China. IEEE, 2006, 235–239.

36. Geidarovs, R., Podgornovs, A., and Galkin, I. Simulation and initial evaluation of modular motor-generator for cost-effective power-assist wheelchair. In Proceedings of the IEEE 59th Annual International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University, RTUCON, November 12–13, 2018, Riga, Latvia

37. Podgornovs, A. and Galkin, I. Evaluation of Configurations of Modular Motor for Power-Assist Wheelchair. In Proceedings of the 26th International Workshop on Electric Drives: Improvement in Efficiency of Electric Drives, IWED, January 30 – February 2, 2019, Moscow, Russia

38. Hogberg, S., Pedersen, T. S., Bendixen, F. B., Mijatovic, N., Jensen, B. B., and Holboll, J. Direct reuse of rare earth permanent magnets – Wind turbine generator case study. In Proceedings of the XXII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), September 4–7, 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland. IEEE, 2016, 1625–1629.

39. Rassõlkin, A., Kallaste, A., Orlova, S., Gevorkov, L., Vaimann, T., and Belahcen, A. Re-use and recycling of different electrical machines. Latv. J. Phys. Tech. Sci., 2018, 55(4), 13–23.

40. Steentjes, S. et al. Effect of the interdependence of cold rolling strategies and subsequent punching on magnetic properties of NO steel sheets. IEEE Trans. Magn., 2016, 52(5), 1–4.

41. Boughanmi, W., Manata, J. P., Roger, D., Jacq, T., and Streiff, F. Life cycle assessment of a three-phase electrical machine in continuous operation. IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, 6(5), 277. doi:

42. Orosz, T., Sőrés, P., Raisz, D., and Tamus, Á. Z. Analysis of the green power transition on optimal power transformer designs. Period. Polytech. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., 2015, 59(3), 125–131.

43. Gutt, H.-J. and Grüner, A. Definition of power density as a general utilization factor of electrical machines. Eur. Trans. Electr. Power, 2007, 8(4), 305–308.

44. EuP Network Website.

45. Andrada, P., Blanqué, B., Martínez, E., Perat, J. I., Sánchez, J. A., and Torrent, M. Environmental and life cycle cost analysis of one switched reluctance motor drive and two inverter-fed induction motor drives. IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, 6(7), 390.

46. de Almeida, A. T., Ferreira, F. J. T. E., Fong, J., and Fonseca, P. EUP Lot 11 Motors Final Report. Coimbra, Portugal, 2008.

47. Lopez, C., Michalski, T., Espinosa, A., and Romeral, L. New SynRM design approach based on behaviour maps analysis. In Proceedings of the XXII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), September 4–7, 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland. IEEE, 2016, 1915–1921.

48. Ghahfarokhi, P. S., Kallaste, A., Belahcen, A., Vaimann, T., and Rassõlkin, A. Review of thermal analysis of permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machines. In Proceedings of the Electric Power Quality and Supply Reliability (PQ), August 29–31, 2016, Tallinn, Estonia. IEEE, 2016, 219–224.

49. Kallaste, A., Vaimann, T., and Rassõlkin, A. Additive Design Possibilities of Electrical Machines. In Proceedings of the IEEE 59th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), November 12–13, 2018, Riga, Latvia. IEEE, 2019, 1–5.

50. Kaska, J., Orosz, T., Karban, P., Doležel, I., Pechánek, R., and Pánek, D. Optimization of Reluctance Motor with Printed Rotor. In Proceeding of the 22nd International Conference on the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields (COMPUMAG), July, 15–19, 2019, Paris, France. IEEE, 2020, 1–4.

51. Rassõlkin, A., Vaimann, T., Kallaste, A., and Kuts, V. Digital twin for propulsion drive of autonomous electric vehicle. In Proceedings of the IEEE 60th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), October 7–9, 2019, Riga, Latvia


Back to Issue