ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1952
 
Proceeding cover
proceedings
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 1.045

Rapid semi-quantitative determination of aspen lignin in lignocellulosic products; pp. 105–112

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/proc.2015.1S.06

Authors
Urve Kallavus, Kristi Kärner, Kärt Kärner, Matti Elomaa

Abstract

In the present study different methods for the determination of aspen lignin were investigated. In experiments, dried samples of extractive-free aspen wood and grinded bleached-chemo-thermo-mechanical-pulp (BCTMP) of aspen were used. For isolating lignin from aspen wood and BCTMP, Klason method was used. For the quantification of lignin content, a series of aspen wood powder/microcrystalline cellulose binder were mixed and analysed with FTIR-ATR and UV-VIS. To compare with colour reactions, an average content 21% of lignin was assigned to experimental content in 100% aspen wood powder. FTIR-ATR absorbance maximum between 1234–1237 cm–1 and UV-VIS pseudo-absorbance of measured samples maximum at 280 nm were taken as measurement points for the calibration of lignin content. Nearly linear dependence was established with both methods. Weisner and Mäule colour tests were used for staining to detect lignin in samples. Suspensions, containing samples with staining solution, were prepared and photographed. Best positive Weisner reaction with violet colour, both with aspen wood and BCTMP samples, were established with the 1 : 1 phloroglucinol/HCl staining solution. Carefully mixed suspension of 0.1 g samples and 5 min reaction time were applied. In Mäule reaction, intensive red colour appeared to samples after 10 min treatment with 1% KMnO4. Samples were washed with distilled water and treated with 3% aqueous HCl until the colour changed from black to beige/yellow. Then samples were treated with concentrated NH3·H2O for 2 min to achieve the most intensive colour. A simple semiquantitative method for detection of lignin in BCTMP was worked out.


References

 

  1. Stjöström, E. Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applica­tions, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, 1993, 70–84.

  2. Adler, E. Lignin chemistry – past, present and future. Wood Sci. Technol., 1977, 11, 169–218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00365615

  3. Dence, C. W. The determination of lignin. In Methods in Lignin Chemistry, 1992, 33–61. Online, Springerlink.com (accessed 11.11.13).

  4. Horvath, A. L. Solubility of structurally complicated materials: I. Wood. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2006, 35, 77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2035708

  5. Hatfield, R. and Fukushima, R. S. Can lignin be accurately measured? Crop Sci., 2005, 45, 832–839.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2004.0238

  6. Browning, B. Methods of Wood Chemistry. Vols I and II. John Wiley, New York, 1967.

  7. Dean, J. F. Lignin analysis. In Methods in Plant Bio­chemistry and Molecular Biology (Dashek, W. V., ed.). CRC Press, 1997, 199–215.

  8. Sarkanen, K. V. and Ludwig, C. H. Lignins: Occurrence, Formation, Structure and Reactions. John Wiley, New York, 1971.

  9. Harkin, J. M. Lignin Production and Detection in Wood. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1966.

10. Gray, J. R. The Suitability of Certain Stains for Studying the Lignification Process. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maine, 1971.

11. Christiernin, M., Ohlsson, A. B., Berglund, T., and Hen­riks­son, G. Lignin isolated from primary walls of hybrid aspen cell cultures indicates significant differences in lignin structure between primary and secondary cell wall. Plant Physiol. Bioch., 2005, 43, 777–785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2005.07.007

12. Mongeau, R. and Brooks, S. P. J. Chemistry and analysis of lignin. In Handbook of Dietary Fiber (Dreher, M. L. and Cho, S. S., eds). CRC Press, 2001, 321–373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203904220.ch20

13. Glennie, D. W. and McCarthy, J. L. Chemistry of lignin. In Pulp and Paper Science and Technology (Libby, C. E., ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962, 82–107.

14. Heitner, C., Dimmel, D., and Schmidt, J. (eds). Lignin and Lignans: Advances in Chemistry. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/EBK1574444865

15. Faix, O. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In Methods in Lignin Chemistry, 1992, 83–109. Online, Springerlink.com (accessed 19.11.13).

16. TAPPI T222 om-06. Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp, 2011.

17. TAPPI T264 om-97. Preparation of wood for chemical analysis, 2011.

18. Kubelka, P. New contributions to the optics of intensely light-scattering materials. Part I. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1948, 38, 448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.38.001067

19. Durie, R. A., Lynch, B. M., and Sternhell, S. Comparative studies of brown coal and lignin. I. Infra-red spectra. Aust. J. Chem., 1960, 13(1), 156–168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/CH9600156

20. Faix, O. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In Methods in Lignin Chemistry, 1992, 83–109. Online, Springerlink.com (accessed 19.11.13).

21. Reis, R. J. and Nielsen, G. Aspen BCTMP: proven performance. TAPPI J., 2001, 84, 28–30.

 


Back to Issue