ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1952
 
Proceeding cover
proceedings
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 1.045

Assessment of natural radiation exposure from building materials in Estonia; pp. 107–112

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/proc.2012.2.03

Authors
Merle Lust, Enn Realo

Abstract

Radionuclides naturally occurring in building materials may significantly contribute to the annual doses of the public. As information on the radioactivity of such materials is lacking, the study of building materials used in Estonia was carried out in order to estimate the annual dose to the Estonian population due to natural radionuclides in building materials. During the study 53 samples of commonly used raw materials and building products were collected and measured. The activity concentrations were determined by gamma ray spectrometry. Their mean values were in the ranges 7–747 Bq kg–1 for 40K, 4.4–69 Bq kg–1 for 226Ra, and 0.8–86 Bq kg–1 for 232Th. The activity index I in the 53 different building materials varied from 0.02 to 0.74 and the radium equivalent, from 6 to 239. The average annual dose for the people, caused by the building materials of dwellings, was assessed for most commonly used materials. It was estimated to be in the range from 0.16 mSv to 0.44 mSv.


References

Ahmed, N. K. 2005. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials in Qena city, Upper Egypt. J. Environ. Radioact., 83, 91–99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.03.002

Al-Jundi, J., Ulanovsky, A., and Prohl, G. 2009. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials. J. Environ. Radioact., 100, 841–846.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.06.010

Berger, M. J. 1957. Calculation of energy dissipation by gamma radiation near the interface between two media. J. Appl. Phys., 28, 1502–1508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1722685

Brígido Flores, O., Montalvan Estrada, A., Rosa Suarez, R., Tomas Zerquera, J., and Hernandez Perez, A. 2008. Natural radionuclide content in building materials and gamma dose rate in dwellings in Cuba. J. Environ. Radioact., 99, 1834–1837.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.08.001

Chen, C. J. and Lin, Y. M. 1996. Assessment of building materials for compliance with regulations of ROC. Environ. Internat., 22, S221–S226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(96)00111-0

El-Hussein, A. 2005. A study on natural radiation exposure in different realistic living rooms. J. Environ. Radioact., 79, 355–367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.08.009

Estonian Radiation Act. 2004.

[EC] European Commission. 1999. Radiation Protection 112. Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials. Directorate-General, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection.

Farai, I. P. and Ademola, J. A. 2005. Radium equivalent activity concentrations in concrete building blocks in eight cities in Southwestern Nigeria. J. Environ. Radioact., 79, 119–125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.05.016

Hewamanna, R., Sumithrachchi, C. S., Mahawatte, P., Nanayakkara, H. L. C., and Ratnayake, H. C. 2001. Natural radioactivity and gamma dose from Sri Lankan clay bricks used in building construction. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 54, 365–369.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00107-X

Ibrahim, N. 1999. Natural activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in building materials. J. Environ. Radioact., 43, 255–258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(98)00033-2

Jong, P. and Dijk, J. W. E. 2008. Calculation of the indoor gamma dose rate distribution due to building materials in the Netherlands. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 132, 381–389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncn309

Khan, K., Aslam, M., Orfi, S. D., and Khan, H. M. 2002. Norm and associated radiation hazards in bricks fabricated in various localities of the North-West Frontier Province (Pakistan). J. Environ. Radioact., 58, 59–66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(01)00030-3

Lee, E. M., Menezes, G., and Finch, E. C. 2004. Natural radioactivity in building materials in the Republic of Ireland. Health Phys., 86, 378–383.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004032-200404000-00007

Lee, S. C., Kim, C. K., Lee, D. M., and Kang, H. D. 2001. Natural radionuclides contents and radon exhalation rates in building materials used in South Korea. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 94, 269–274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a006499

Markkanen, M. 1995. Radiation Dose Assessments for Materials with Elevated Natural Radioactivity. Report STUK-B-STO32. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority – STUK.

Mavi, B. and Akkurt, I. 2010. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazards in some building materials used in Isparta Turkey. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 79, 933–937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2010.03.019

Mustonen, R. 1985. Methods for Evaluation of Radiation from Building Materials. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 7, 235–238.

[OECD-NEA] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development–Nuclear Energy Agency. 1979. Report Exposure to Radiation from Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials. Paris.

Righi, S. and Bruzzi, L. 2006. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation in building materials used in Italian dwellings. J. Environ. Radioact., 88, 158–170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.01.009

Stoulos, S., Manolopoulou, M., and Papastefanou, C. 2003. Assessment of natural radiation exposure and radon exhalation from building materials in Greece. J. Environ. Radioact., 69, 225–240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(03)00081-X

[UNSCEAR] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. 1977. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly with Annex B: Natural Sources of Radiation. United Nations, New York.

[UNSCEAR] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. 1993. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations, New York.

[UNSCEAR] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. 2000. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. 2000 Report to the General Assembly with Annex B: Exposures from Natural Sources of Radiation. United Nations, New York.

[UNSCEAR] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. 2010. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 2008 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. United Nations, New York.

Vrubel, M. N. 1973. Build-up factors of scattered radiation from point source in an unbound air medium. Soviet At. Energy, 34, 63–65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01404521


Back to Issue