eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Proceeding cover
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2021): 1.024
TiAlN coatings tribology for textile machinery parts; pp. 163–171
PDF | 10.3176/proc.2021.2.04

Abrar Hussain, Vitali Podgursky, Dmitri Goljandin, Maksim Antonov

Rough, damaged, and distorted post-consumer natural and synthetic polymers cause wear and damage to textile machinery parts, presenting a major obstacle to the quality of recycled products. In this research, TiAlN coatings were used to measure the coefficient of friction (COF) for tribological properties. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of cotton textiles revealed surface damage, distortions, and loose fibres produced on the fabric surface. SEM morphology of TiAlN coatings was found smooth and uniform. Additionally, Contour GT-K 3D optical microscope and mechanical profilometer (Mahr Perthometer) were used for coating surface analysis. The average coating surface roughness parameters were Rmax (0.30 µm), Rz (0.26 µm), and Rp (0.17 µm). The microhardness value was 35 GPa on the HV scale. The lower surface roughness and higher hardness values are an indication of reasonable quality and performance of textile fabrics during recycling. The dynamic COF values were obtained from 0.47 to 0.30 in warp and from 0.35 to 0.23 in weft directions. Higher COF values occurred in the warp direction due to lower thread densities, rough surface, preferred fibre orientation, randomly oriented fibres, and a plain-woven structure. Based on the COF values, permanent deformation, and morphology evaluations, TiAlN coatings could be used optimistically for surface modification of shredding, cutting, and textile machinery parts. The TiAlN coatings applications in industries could also enhance the quality and performance of recycled textile products.


1. Wang, J., Ma, J., Huang, W., Wang, L., He, H. and Liu, C. The investigation of the structures and tribological properties of FDLC coatings deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 316, 22–29.

2. Tian, B., Yue, W., Fu, Z.-Q., Gu, Y., Chengbiao, W. and Liu, J. Microstructure and tribological properties of W-implanted PVD TiN coatings on 316L stainless steel. Vacuum, 2014, 99, 68–75.

3. Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Rockström, J., Cornell, S. E., Fetzer, I., Bennett, E. M. et al. Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science, 2015, 347(6223), 1259855.

4. Ütebay, B., Çelik, P. and Çay, A. Effects of cotton textile waste properties on recycled fibre quality. J. Clean. Prod., 2019, 222, 29–35.

5. Cutting Tools. Dedalus Consulting. New York, NY.

6. Han, X., Zheng, J., Hao, J., Shuaituo and Zhang. The microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of a-C:H films with self-assembled carbon nanohoops. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 311, 27–34.

7. Wang, C. Y., Xie, Y. X., Qin, Z., Lin, H. S., Yuan, Y. H. and Wang, Q. M. Wear and breakage of TiAlN- and TiSiN-coated carbide tools during high-speed milling of hardened steel. Wear, 2015, 336–337, 29–42.

8. Chang, Y.-Y. and Hsiao, C.-Y. High temperature oxidation resistance of multicomponent Cr–Ti–Al–Si–N coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2009, 204(6–7), 992–996.

9. Shanmugavelayutham, G., Selvarajan, V., Yugeswaran, S., Vijay, M., Suresh. K., Vijeyakumar, S. et al. Performance study of wear resistance and solid lubricant surface coatings on textile machinery components. Compos. Interfaces, 2012, 19(3–4), 239–249.

10. Merlo, A. M. The contribution of surface engineering to the product performance in the automotive industry. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 174–175, 21–26.

11. Ernst, P. and Barbezat, G. Thermal spray applications in powertrain contribute to the saving of energy and material resources. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202(18), 4428–4431.

12. Donnet, C. and Erdemir, A. Historical developments and new trends in tribological and solid lubricant coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2004, 180, 76–84.

13. Peng, Z., Miao, H., Qi, L., Yang, S. and Liu, C. Hard and wear-resistant titanium nitride coatings for cemented carbide cutting tools by pulsed high energy density plasma. Acta Mater., 2003, 51(11), 3085–3094.

14. Tian, X., Yan, K., Zhao, J., Cheng, Y. and Zhongbin, W. Thermal and mechanical shock resistances of Si3N4/(W, Ti) C graded nanocomposite ceramic tool material. Ceram. Int., 2020, 46(2), 2317–2324.

15. Lorenzo-Martin, C., Ajayi, O. O., Erdemir, A., Fenske, G. R. and Wei, R. Effect of microstructure and thickness on the friction and wear behavior of CrN coatings. Wear, 2013, 302(1–2), 963–971.

16. Luo, Q. Temperature dependent friction and wear of mag­netron sputtered coating TiAlN/VN. Wear, 2011, 271(9–10), 2058–2066.

17. Birol, Y. Sliding wear of CrN, AlCrN and AlTiN coated AISI H13 hot work tool steels in aluminium extrusion. Tribol. Int., 2013, 57, 101–106.

18. Chu, K., Shum, P. W. and Shen, Y. G. Substrate bias effects on mechanical and tribological properties of substitutional solid solution (Ti, Al) N films prepared by reactive mag­netron sputtering. Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 2006, 131(1–3), 62–71.

19. Shum, P. W., Tam, W. C., Li, K. Y., Zhou, Z. F. and Shen, Y. G. Mechanical and tribological properties of titanium–aluminium–nitride films deposited by reactive close-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Wear, 2004, 257(9–10), 1030–1040.

20. Darden, M. A. and Schwartz, C. J. Investigation of skin tribology and its effects on the tactile attributes of polymer fabrics. Wear, 2009, 267(5–8), 1289–1294.

21. Frącczak, Ł., Matusiak, M. and Zgórniak, P. Investigation of the friction coefficient of Seersucker woven fabrics. Fibres Text. East. Eur., 2019, 27, 3(135), 36–42.

22. Bueno, M. A., Lamy, B., Renner, M. and Viallier-Raynard, P. Tribological investigation of textile fabrics. Wear, 1996, 195(1–2), 192–200.

23. Tang, K.-p. M., Kan, C.-w. and Fan, J.-t. Assessing and predicting the subjective wetness sensation of textiles: subjective and objective evaluation. Text. Res. J., 2014, 85(8), 838–849.

24. Mukhopadhyay, A. and Midha, V. K. The quality and performance of sewn seams. In Joining Textiles. Woodhead Publishing, 2013, 175–207.

25. Hearle, J. W. S., Lomas, B. and Cooke, W. D. Atlas of Fibre Fracture and Damage to Textiles. Woodhead Publishing, 1998.

26. Qi, Z., Sun, P., Zhu, F. P., Wu, Z. T., Liu, B., Wang, Z. C. et al. Relationship between tribological properties and oxidation behavior of Ti0.34Al0.66N coatings at elevated temperature up to 900 ºC. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 231, 267–272.

27. Ramadoss, R., Kumar, N., Pandian, R., Dash, S., Ravindran, T. R., Arivuoli, D. et al. Tribological properties and deformation mechanism of TiAlN coating sliding with various counterbodies. Tribol. Int., 2013, 66, 143–149.

28. Barnes, C. J., Childs, T. H. C., Henson, B. and Southee, C. H. Surface finish and touch – a case study in a new human factors tribology. Wear, 2004, 257(7–8), 740–750.

29. Das, A., Kothari, V. K. and Vandana, N. A study on frictional characteristics of woven fabrics. Autex Res. J., 2005, 5(3), 133–140. 

30. Kothari, V. K., Das, A. and Sreedevi, R. Cut resistance of textile fabrics – A theoretical and an experimental approach. Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., 2007, 32, 306–311. 

31. Mo, J., Zhu, M. H., Lei, B., Leng, Y. X. and Huang, L. Comparison of tribological behaviours of AlCrN and TiAlN coatings – Deposited by physical vapor deposition. Wear, 2007, 263(7–12), 1423–1429.

32. Zhou, Z., Rainforth, W. M., Luo, Q., Hovsepian, P. Eh., Ojeda, J. J. and Romero-Gonzales, M. E.  Wear and friction of TiAlN/VN coatings against Al2O3 in air at  room and elevated temperatures. Acta Mater., 2010, 58(8), 2912–2925.

33. Mahdu, A., Saha, B., Kumar, M. and Singha, K. Fabric assistance effect on woven fabric tensile strength: a brief review. J. Textile Assoc., 2014, 178–186.

34. Cunniff, P. M. An analysis of the system effects in woven fabrics under ballistic impact.  Text. Res. J., 1992, 62(9), 495–509.

35. Abrar, H., Podgursky, V., Goliandin, D., Viljus, M., Antonov, M., Bogatov, A. et al. Tribological and mechanical properties investigations of post-consumer cotton textiles, accepted for publication. In Proceedings of the 28th International Baltic Conference “Materials Engineering and Modern Manufacturing  2020”. Trans Tech publications, 2020. 

Back to Issue