The Temporal Structure of Livonian Tri-, Tetra- and Pentasyllabic Words; pp. 177-195Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/lu.2015.3.02
The article focuses on Livonian trisyllabic, tetrasyllabic and pentasyllabic words, comparing the temporal structures of non-initial syllables and secondary-stressed feet. Durations and duration ratios of the syllables in words with different structure were analyzed on the basis of phonetic data from three generations of Livonian speakers. The results from trisyllabic words show that the lengthening of unstressed syllables is not a regular pattern and is valid only in certain word structures. In trisyllabic words with a long initial syllable followed by a short vowel in the second and third syllable, the duration of the vowel in the second syllable is always shorter than that of the third syllable vowel. In the case of tetrasyllabic words, the syllable durations and duration ratios of the secondary-stressed feet are similar to those of the primary-stressed feet, but unstressed syllables are lengthened significantly more in a primary-stressed foot than in a secondary-stressed foot. The duration of trisyllabic secondary-stressed feet in pentasyllabic words is similar to that of primary-stressed feet when the word contains the derivational affix -nikā.
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