eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1965
Linguistica Uralica cover
Linguistica Uralica
ISSN 1736-7506 (Electronic)
ISSN 0868-4731 (Print)
Evidentiality in ­Livonian; pp. 41-54
PDF | doi:10.3176/lu.2012.1.04

Petar Kehayov, Helle Metslang, Karl Pajusalu

The study focuses on dedicated grammatical evidentials and ­evidentiality strategies in the two main dialects of Livonian — Courland and Salaca Livonian. The analysis of Livonian evidentiality is based on a model originally proposed by Rätsep (1971) for Estonian, which posits two subsystems of reported ­evidentiality — the reported indicative (oblique mood) and the reported imperative (jussive). The study shows that evidentiality in Livonian — despite the intense and long-lasting contacts of this language with Latvian (resulting in heavy structural ­borrowing in many domains of grammar) and its close genetic relatedness to Estonian — manifests a rather unique configuration of structural features. The most ­striking of them is that the present tense forms of the Livonian reported indicative are expressed by means of agent nouns agreeing in number with the subject NP. It is argued that this type of evidentiality coding is typologically very rare.


Aikhenvald, A. Y. 2004, Evidentiality, Oxford.

Audova, I. 2003, Die ostseefinnischen Deverbativa auf *-pa/- und *-ja/*- in der Funktion des adjektivischen Attributs. - LU XXXIX, 1-19.

Bashir, E. 2006, Evidentiality in South Asian Languages. - The Proceedings of the LFG-06 Conference., 30-50.

Erelt, M., Metslang, H. 2004, Grammar and Pragmatics: Changes in the Paradigm Of The Estonian Imperative. - LU XL, 161-178.

Erelt, M., Metslang, H., Pajusalu, K. 2006, Tense and ­Evidentiality in Estonian. - Topics in Subjectification and Modalization (Belgian ­Journal of Linguistics 20), 125-136.

Holvoet, A. 2001, Studies in the Latvian Verb, Krakow.

Ikola, O. 1953, Viron ja liivin modus obliquuksen historiaa, Helsinki (Suomi 106, 4).

Isaksson, B. 2000, Expressions of Evidentiality in Two Semitic Languages - Hebrew and Arabic. - Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages, Berlin-New York (Empirical Approaches to Language ­Typology 24), 383-399.

Kehayov, P. 2004, Eesti keele evidentsiaalsussüsteem mõne teise keele taustal. Morfosüntaks ja distributsioon. - KK, 812-829.

Kehayov, P. 2008, An Areal-Typological Perspective to Evidentiality: the Cases of the Balkan and Baltic Linguistic Areas, Tartu.

Kehayov, P., Lindström, L., Niit, E. 2011, Imperative in ­Interrogatives in Estonian (Kihnu), Latvian and Livonian. - LU XLVII, 81-93.

Koptjevskaja-Tamm, M., Wälchli, B. 2001, The Circum-Baltic Languages. An Areal-Typological Approach. - Circum-Baltic Languages 2. Grammar and Typology, Amsterdam (Studies in Language Companion Series 55), 615-750.

Krautmane, Ē. 2006, The Evidential in the Latvian, Estonian and Livonian Languages. An Introduction to the Topic. - Valodniecība. Somugristika, Riga (Latvijas Universitātes Raksti 708), 66-72.

Krautmane, Ē. 2010, Kuramaa liivi keele kõneviiside süsteem eesti ja läti keele taustal, Tartu (Unpublished MA thesis. University of Tartu).

LaPolla, R. J. 2003, Evidentiality in Qiang. - Evidentiality in Typological Perspective, Amsterdam, 63-78.

Metslang, H. 1994, Eesti ja soome — futuurumita keeled? - KK, 534-547, 603-616.

Metslang, H. 2000, Reflections on Development of a Particle in Estonian. - Estonian: Typological Studies IV, Tartu (Tartu Ülikooli eesti keele õppetooli toimeti­sed 14), 59-86.

Norvik, M. 2012, Perifrastic Future Devices in Salaca Livonian. - LU XLVIII, 27-40.

Plungian, V. 2001, The Place of Evidentiality within the Universal Grammatical Space. - Journal of Pragmatics 33, 349-357.

Rätsep, H. 1971, Kas kaudne kõneviis on kõneviis? - Keel ja struktuur 5, Tar­tu 45-69.

Sepper, M.-M. 2005, Indirektaal 19. sajandi lõpu ja 20. sajandi eesti kirjakeeles, Tallinn (Unpublished MA thesis. Tallinn University).

Wälchli, B. 2000, Infinite Predication as a Marker of Evidentiality and ­Modality in the Languages of the Baltic Region. - Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 53, 186-210.

Willett, T. 1988, A Cross-Linguistic Survey of the Grammaticalization of Evidentiality. - Studies in Language 12, 51-97.

Back to Issue