ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1965
 
Linguistica Uralica cover
Linguistica Uralica
ISSN 1736-7506 (Electronic)
ISSN 0868-4731 (Print)

Some Notes on Proximative and Avertive in Estonian; pp. 178-191

Full article in PDF format | doi:10.3176/lu.2009.3.02

Authors
Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang

Abstract
Estonian has both the verbal grammatical category of the proximative and the avertive, which could be treated as the unmarked and marked categories of the prospective. The proximative is mainly expressed either by means of the partly grammaticalized verbs ähvardama ’threaten’, tahtma ’want’, tõotama ’promise’, etc. (Puder ähvardas põhja kõrbeda ’the porridge threatened to boil away’), which is similar to many other European languages, or by means of the mas-construction (Vene väed on Gorist lahkumas ’the Russian forces are about to leave Gori’). In Estonian the avertive is morphologically not linked with proximativity. It is noteworthy from the typological perspective that the avertive auxiliary stems from the imperfect form of the verb pidama ’must, have to’, which expresses agent-oriented modality (Ta pidi oma kohast ilma jääma ’he was to lose his job’). The development occurred through the intermediate intentional stage, which in addition to the avertive gave rise to the quotative (Praegugi pidi neid mitmes kohas maas vedelema ’even now they are reported to be lying about on the ground in various places’).
References

Bybee, J., Pagliuca, W. Perkins, R. 1991, Back to the Future. - Approaches to Grammaticalization II, Amsterdam-Philadelphia (Typological Studies in Language 19: 2), 17-58.

Comrie, B. 1976, Aspect, Cambridge.

Comrie, B. 1985, Tense, Cambridge.

Diewald, G., Smirnova, E. 2006, Semantic and Functional Distinctions between the German Evidential Constructions with drohen ’threaten’ and versprechen ’surprise’ (Paper Presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Bremen, 30.08-2.02.2006).

Erelt, M., Kasik, R., Metslang, H., Rajandi, H., Ross, K., Saari, H., Tael, K., Vare, S., 1993, Eesti keele grammatika II. Süntaks. Lisa: kiri, Tallinn (= EKG II).

Erelt, M. 1985, ma-, mas- ja mast-infinitiivist eesti keeles. - Ars Grammatica 1985, Tallinn, 4-42.

Erelt, M. 2001, Some Notes on the Grammaticalization of the Verb pidama in Estonian. - Estonian: Typological Studies II, Tartu (Tartu Ülikooli eesti keele õppetooli toimetised 18), 7-25.

Erelt, M. 2009, Prospektiiv ja retrospektiiv eesti keeles. - ESA 54 (2008), 44-53.

Heine, B. 1992, Grammaticalization Chains. - Studies in Language 16, 335-368.

Heine, B. 1994, On the Genesis of Aspect in African Languages. The Proximative. - Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of Berkeley Linguistic Society, Berkeley, 35-46.

Heine, B., Miyashita, H. 2008, Accounting for a Functional Category: German drohen ’to threaten’. - Language Sciences 30, 53-101.
doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2007.05.003

Heine, B., Kuteva, T. 2002, World Lexicon of Grammaticalization, Cambridge.

Heine, B., Kuteva, T. 2006, The Changing Languages of Europe, Oxford.

Ikola, O. 1971, Lauseenvastikkeista ja upotetuista lauseista. - Sananjalka 13, Turku, 17-51.

Ikola, O. 1974, Lauseenvastikeoppia. Nykysuomen lauseenvastikkeiden ja niihin verrattavien rakenteiden selvittelyä, Helsinki.

König, C. 1993, Aspect in Maa, Cologne (Afrikanistische Monographien 3).

Kuteva, T. 1998, On Identifying an Evasive Gram. Action Narrowly Averted. - Studies in Language 22, 113-160.

Kuteva, T. 1999, TAM-Auxiliation, and the Avertive Category in Northeast Europe. - Grammaticalisation aréale et sémantique cognitive: les langues fenniques et sames, Tallinn (Oural-Ural 1), 27-41.

Kuteva, T. 2001, Auxiliation, Oxford.

Laitinen, L. 1992, Välttämättömyys ja persoona. Suomen murteiden nessessiivisten rakenteiden semantiikkaa ja kielioppia, Helsinki (SKST 569).

Metslang, H. 1993, Kas eesti keeles on olemas progressiiv? - KK, 326-334, 410-417, 470-476.

Metslang, H. 1994, Eesti ja soome - futuurumita keeled? - KK, 534-547, 603-616.

Metslang, H. 2009, Estonian Grammar between Finnic and SAE: Some Comparisons. - Estonian in Typological Perspective, Berlin (Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 62), 49-71.

Märtson, H.-M. 2009, Verbi tõotama abiverbistumisest eesti kirjakeeles viimase sajandi jooksul. Bakalaureusetöö, Tartu (manuscript).

Pustet, R. 2008, Proximative and Avertive in Lakota. Diachronic Pathways from Modality to Aspect (Paper presented at CIL 18, Seoul, South Korea, July 21-26, 2008).

Rajandi, H. 1999/1968, Eesti impersonaali ja passiivi süntaks, Tallinn (Eesti Keele Instituudi toimetised 3).

Vliegen, M. 2007, The Relation between Lexical and Epistemic Readings. The Equivalents of promise and threaten in Dutch and German. - Topics in Subjectification and Modalization (Belgian Journal of Linguistics 20), 73-96.

Ylikoski, J. 2003, Havaintoja suomen ns. viidennen infinitiivin käytöstä. - Sananjalka 45, 7—44.

Plungjan V. A. 2003, Obshtshaja morfologija. Izdanie vtoroje, ispravlennoje, Moskva.

Tipologija rezul'tativnyh konstruktsij, Leningrad 1983.
Back to Issue