ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1952
 
Earth Science cover
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN 1736-7557 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-4728 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.789

Cystoblastus and the origin of the Hemicosmitoida (Echinodermata: Blastozoa); pp. 165–181

Full article in PDF format | 10.3176/earth.2021.13

Authors
Christopher R. C. Paul, Ursula Toom

Abstract

All previous descriptions and interpretations of thecal plating in Cystoblastus Volborth depict a closed infralateral circlet, whereas actual specimens have that plate circlet open in three places. Cystoblastus is redescribed using Estonian specimens. It has a blastoid-like theca composed of a pelvis of four basals and five infralaterals, plus a vault composed of nine alternating laterals and radials. The radials are deeply cleft to accommodate the ambulacra, as in many blastoids, but lack underlying lancets, or any trace of blastoid deltoid plates. Cystoblastus vault plating resembles the ‘lateral’ circlet of hemicosmitoid Rhombifera. So, recognition of plate homologies between glyptocystitoid and hemicosmitoid (= dichoporite) rhombiferans was attempted. One unique interpretation accounts for all the hemicosmitoid plates without contravening any positional constraints imposed by glyptocystitoid plating. Thus, the new interpretation is not invalidated by conventional tests of homology. We used the new plate homologies to investigate the phylogeny of glyptocystitoids and hemicosmitoids, utilizing twelve genera and 27 parsimony-informative characters. Cladistic analysis using PAUP produced eight equally parsimonious trees. A strict consensus tree revealed the hemicosmitoids as highly derived dichoporites, with Hemicosmites as sister to the Caryocrinitidae and Thomacystidae. Cystoblastus is a sister group to hemicosmitoids in a trichotomy including Glyptocystella and Pirocystella. This lineage was derived from the Cheirocrinidae. Thus, Cystoblastus is not related to blastoids, as suggested by Otto Jaekel, but is a critical link between glyptocystoid and hemicosmitoid dichoporites, and the Dichoporita is a valid taxon.


References

Barrande, J. 1867. Classe des Mollusques, Ordre des Ptéropodes. Systême Silurien du Centre de la Bohême, Premier Partie: Recherches Paléontologiques3, W. Waagen, Prague, xv + 179 pp.

Bassler, R. S. & Moodey, M. W. 1943. Bibliographic and faunal index of Paleozoic pelmatozoan echinoderms. Geological Society of America Special Paper,45, vi + 733 pp.
https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE45-p1

Bather, F. A. 1899. A phylogenetic classification of the Pelmatozoa. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science68, 916–923.

Bekker, H. 1921. The Kuckers Stage of the Ordovician Rocks of NE Estonia. C. Mattlesen, Tartu, 92 pp.

Bernard, F. 1893–1895. Eléments de Paléontologie. J.-B. Ballière et Fils, Paris, viii + 1168 pp.

Bockelie, J. F. 1979. Taxonomy, functional morphology and palaeoecology of the Ordovician cystoid family Hemicosmitidae. Palaeontology22, 363–406.

Bockelie, J. F. 1984. The Diploporita of the Oslo region, Norway. Palaeontology27, 1–68.

Brett, C. E. 1978. Attachment structures in the rhombiferan cystoid Caryocrinites and their paleobiological signif­i­cance. Journal of Paleontology52, 717–726.

Broadhead, T. E. & Sumrall, C. D. 2003. Heterochrony and paedomorphic morphology of Sprinkleocystis ektopios, new genus and species, (Rhombifera, Glyptocystida [sic]) from the Middle Ordovician (Caradoc) of Tennessee. Journal of Paleontology77, 113–120.
https://doi.org/10.1666/0022-3360(2003)077<0113:HAPMOS>2.0.CO;2

Buch, L. von. 1840. Über Sphaeroniten und einige andere Geschlechter, aus welchen Crinoideen entstehen. Verhandlungen Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, (1840), 56–60. 

Callaway, C. 1877. On a new area of Upper Cambrian rocks in south Shropshire, with a description of a new fauna. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London33, 652–672.
https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.JGS.1877.033.01-04.37

Carpenter, P. H. 1884. Report upon the Crinoidea collected during the voyage of HMS Challenger during the years 1873–76, part 1. General morphology with descriptions of the stalked crinoids. Reports of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of HMS Challenger, Zoology11, 1–442.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11805

Carpenter, P. H. 1891. On certain points of the morphology of the Cystidea. Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology)34, 1–52.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1891.tb02474.x

Eichwald, E. von. 1856. Beitrag zur geographischen Verbreitung der fossilien Thiere Russlands. Alte Periode. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou29, 88–127.

Frest, T. J. 1975. Caryocrinitidae (Echinodermata: Rhombifera) of the Laurel Limestone of southeastern Indiana. Fieldiana: Geology30, 81–106.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.3447

Hecker (Gekker), R. F. 1964. Class Cystoidea. In Osnovy paleontologii. Iglokozhie, gemihordovye, pogonofory i shetinkochelyustnye [Fundamentals of Palaeontology, Echinoderms, Hemichordates, Pogonophores and Chaetognaths] (Hecker, R. F., ed.), pp. 30–45. Nedra, Moscow [in Russian].

Jaekel, O. 1899. Stammesgeschichte der pelmatozoen. 1. Thecoidea und Cystoidea. Julius Springer, Berlin, 442 pp.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8521

Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologisches Zeitschrift3, 1–128.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03190413

Jefferies, R. P. S., Joysey, K. A., Paul, C. R. C. & Ramsbottom, W. H. C. 1967. Echinodermata: Pelmatozoa. In The Fossil Record (Harland, W. B. et al., eds), pp. 565–581. Geological Society, London.
https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1967.002.01.39

Kesling, R. V. 1961. Notes on Jaekelocystis hartleyi and Pseudocrinites gordoni, two rhombiferan cystoids described by Charles Schuchert in 1903. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan16, 245–273.

Kesling, R. V. 1962. An interpretation of Rhombifera bohemica Barrande, 1867, an unusual hydrophoridean cystoid. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan17, 277–289.

Kesling, R. V. 1968. Cystoids. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part S, Echinodermata 1 (1) (Moore, R. C., ed.), pp. S85–S267. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press, Boulder & Lawrence. 

Koenen, A. von. 1886. Ueber neue Cystideen aus den Caradoc-schichten der Gegend von Montpellier. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie2, 246–254.

Kröger, B. 2012. The “Vaginaten”: the dominant cephalopods of the Baltoscandian Mid Ordovician endocerid limestone. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar134, 115–132.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2012.691897

Lanc, F. A., McDermott, P. D. & Paul, C. R. C. 2015. The identity of the British Ordovician cystoid “Hemicosmites rugatus Forbes”. Geological Journal50, 1–16.
https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.2522

Miller, S. A. 1889. North American Geology and Palaeontology. Western Methodist Book Concern, Cincinnati, Ohio, 664 pp.

Miller, S. A. 1892. Palaeontology. Annual Report, Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources17, 611–705.

Nardin, E., Lefebvre, B., David, B. & Mooi, R. 2009. La Radiation des échinodermes au Paléozoïque inférieur, l’exemple des blastozoaires. Comptes Rendus Paleovol8, 179–188.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2008.09.004

Neumayr, M. 1889. Die Stämme des Thierreiches. 1. Wirbellose Thiere. Tempsky: Vienna and Prague; 603 pp.

Öpik, A. 1925. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Kukruse- (C2-) Stufe in Eesti 1. Acta et Commentationes Universitas Dorpatensis8(5), 1–18.

Paul, C. R. C. 1967. The British Silurian cystoids. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology13, 299–355.

Paul, C. R. C. 1968a. Macrocystella Callaway, the earliest glyptocystitid cystoid. Palaeontology11, 580–600.

Paul, C. R. C. 1968b. Morphology and function of dichoporite pore structures in cystoids. Palaeontology11, 697–730. 

Paul, C. R. C. 1969. Thomacystis, a unique new hemicosmitid cystoid from Wales. Geological Magazine106, 190–196.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800051992

Paul, C. R. C. 1972. Cheirocystella antiqua gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Ordovician of western Utah, and its bearing on the evolution of the Cheirocrinidae (Rhombifera: Glyptocystitida). Brigham Young University Geology Studies19, 15–63.

Paul, C. R. C. 1984. British Ordovician Cystoids, part 2. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society136(563), 65–152.

Paul, C. R. C. 2021. New insights into the origin and relationships of blastoid echinoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica66, 41–62.
https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00825.2020

Paul, C. R. C. & Bolton, T. E. 1991. A new Middle Silurian callocystitid cystoid from the Lake Timiskaming Region, Northern Ontario. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada412, 35–42.
https://doi.org/10.4095/132678

Paul, C. R. C. & Rozhnov, S. V. 2016. Revision of Scoliocystis (Rhombifera; Echinoencrinitidae) and related cystoid genera. Paleontological Journal, 50, 43–63.
https://doi.org/10.7868/S0031031X16030089

Pearce, J. C. 1843. On an entirely new form of encrinite from the Dudley Limestone. Proceedings of the Geological Society, London4, 160.

Piveteau, J. 1952. Traité de Paléontologievol. 3, Les formes ultimes d’Invertébrés: morphologie et évolution. Masson et cie, Paris, 1064 pp.

Regnéll, G. 1945. Non-crinoid Pelmatozoa from the Paleozoic of Sweden. A taxonomic study. Meddelanden från Lunds Geologisk-Mineralogiska Institution108, 1–255.

Rozhnov, S. 2014. Symmetry of echinoderms: from initial bilaterally-asymmetric metamerism to pentaradiality. Natural Science6, 171–183.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ns.2014.64021

Say, T. 1825. On two genera and several species of Crinoidea. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia4, 289–296.

Schuchert, C. 1904. On Siluric and Devonic Cystidea and CamarocrinusSmithsonian Miscellaneous Collections2, 201–272.

Sinclair, G. W. 1945. Some Ordovician echinoderms from Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist34, 707–716.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2421094

Sprinkle, J. 1973. Morphology and evolution of blastozoan echinoderms. Special Publication, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, 1–284.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.66379

Sprinkle, J. 1975. The “arms” of Caryocrinites, a rhombiferan cystoid convergent on crinoids. Journal of Paleontology49, 1062–1073.

Sprinkle, J. 1982. Cylindrical and globular rhombiferans. In Echinoderm Faunas from the Bromide Formation (Middle Ordovician) of Oklahoma (Sprinkle, J., ed.), University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Monograph1, 231–273. 

Sprinkle, J. & Wahlman, G. P. 1994. New echinoderms from the early Ordovician of West Texas. Journal of Paleontology, 68, 324–338.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022336000022915

Sumrall, C. D. 2008. The origin of Lovén’s law in glyptocystitoid rhombiferans and its bearing on the plate homology and heterochronic evolution of the hemi­cosmitoid peristomial border. In Echinoderm Paleobiology (Ausich, W. I. & Webster, G. D., eds), pp. 228–241. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Sumrall, C. D. & Brett, C. 2002. A revision of Novacystis hawkesi Paul and Bolton 1991 (Middle Silurian: Glyptocystitida, Echinodermata) and the phylogeny of early callocystitids. Journal of Paleontology76, 733–740.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022336000041998

Sumrall, C. D. & Carlson, D. T. 2000. Suture modification by pectinirhomb growth in Lepadocystis decorus, a new species of callocystitid glyptocystitid rhombiferan (Echi­nodermata) from Illinois. Journal of Paleontology74, 487–491.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022336000031747

Sumrall, C. D. & Waters, J. A. 2012. Universal elemental homology in glyptocystitoids, hemicosmitoids, coronoids and blastoids: steps towards echinoderm phylogenetic reconstruction in derived Blastozoa. Journal of Paleontology86, 956–972.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022336000031747

Swofford, D. L. 2003. PAUP* Version 4.0.b10: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and other methods. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Volborth, A. von. 1867. O tsistoblastakh, novom rode morskikh lilij ili krinoidej [On Cystoblastus, a new genus of sea lilies or crinoids]. Tipografiya Imperatorskoj Akademii Nauk, St Petersburg, 12 pp. [in Russian].

Wanner, J. 1933. Handwörterbuch der Naturwissenschaften. Stachelhäuter (Paläontologie), pp. 485–516. Fischer, Jena [not seen].

Yakovlev, N. N. 1926a. Sur le CystoblastusNymphaeoblastus et AcrocrinusIzvestiya Geologicheskogo Komiteta, Leningrad45(2), 43–49 [in Russian].

Yakovlev, N. N. 1926b. Some new data on CystoblastusAnnuaire de la Société Paléontologique de Russie4, 23–28 [in Russian, with English summary].

Yakovlev, N. N. 1931. Sur les pores primaires de CystoblastusAnnuaire de la Société Paléontologique de Russie9, 43–45 [in Russian, with French summary].

Yanishevskii, M. E. 1932. Geologicheskaya karta okrestnostej g. Leningrada: Opisanie geologicheskogo stroeniya okrestnostej g. Slutska [Geological Map of the Environs of Leningrad: Description of the Geology of the Environs of the Town of Slutsk]. Trudy VGRO, Vypusk 126, 119 pp. [in Russian].


Back to Issue