ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1952
 
Earth Science cover
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN 1736-7557 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-4728 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.789

Miaolingian (Cambrian) trilobite biostratigraphy and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy in the Tingskullen drill core, Öland, Sweden; pp. 18–35

Full article in PDF format | 10.3176/earth.2021.03

Authors
Per Ahlberg, Frans Lundberg, Mikael Calner, Oliver Lehnert, Peter Dahlqvist, Michael M. Joachimski

Abstract

The Cambrian succession of the Tingskullen drill core from northern Öland comprises Cambrian Series 2 and Miaolingian (Wuliuan Stage) siliciclastic strata. The major portion of the succession is represented by the Miaolingian Borgholm Formation, which, in ascending order, is subdivided into the Mossberga, Bårstad and Äleklinta members. The Äleklinta Member is barren of body fossils, whereas the Mossberga and Bårstad members are moderately to highly fossiliferous and biostratigraphically reasonably well constrained. Trilobites and agnostoids from the Bårstad Member are indicative of the Acadoparadoxides pinus Zone. The Mossberga Member has not yielded any zonal guide fossils but is tentatively assigned to the Eccaparadoxides insularis Zone. A δ13Corg curve throughout the Borgholm Formation shows a general positive trend up-section without any distinctive excursion, suggesting that the Wuliuan Acadoparadoxides (Baltoparadoxidesoelandicus Superzone (the ‘Oelandicus beds’) of Öland is younger than the negative Redlichiid–Olenellid Extinction Carbon isotope Excursion (ROECE), which is known from near the top of Stage 4 and close to the traditional ‘Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary’ in several parts of the world.


References

Ahlberg, P. 1989. Cambrian stratigraphy of the När 1 deep well, Gotland. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar111, 137148.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035898909453786

Ahlberg, P., Axheimer, N., Babcock, L. E., Eriksson, M. E., Schmitz, B. & Terfelt, F. 2009. Cambrian high-resolution biostratigraphy and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy in Scania, Sweden: first record of the SPICE and DICE excursions in Scandinavia. Lethaia42, 2–16.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00127.x

Ahlberg, P., Lundberg, F., Erlström, M., Calner, M., Lindskog, A., Dahlqvist, P. & Joachimski, M. M. 2019. Integrated Cambrian biostratigraphy and carbon isotope chemo­stratigraphy of the Grönhögen-2015 drill core, Öland, Sweden. Geological Magazine156, 935–949.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756818000298

Asklund, B. & Thorslund, P. 1935. Fjällkedjerandens berg­byggnad i norra Jämtland och Ångermanland. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC382, 1–110. 

Axheimer, N. & Ahlberg, P. 2003. A core drilling through Cambrian strata at Almbacken, Scania, S. Sweden: trilobites and stratigraphical assessment. GFF125, 139–156.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035890301253139

Babcock, L. E, Peng, S. C., Geyer, G. & Shergold, J. H. 2005. Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geoscience Journal9, 101–106.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02910572

Babcock, L. E., Robison, R. A., Rees, M. N., Peng, S. C. & Saltzman, M. R. 2007. The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Drumian Stage (Cambrian) in the Drum Mountains, Utah, USA. Episodes30, 84–94.
https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2007/v30i2/003

Babcock, L. E., Peng, S. C., Brett, C. E., Zhu, M. Y., Ahlberg, P., Bevis, M. & Robison, R. A. 2015. Global climate, sea level cycles, and biotic events in the Cambrian Period. Palaeoworld24, 5–15.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2015.03.005

Babcock, L. E., Peng, S. C. & Ahlberg, P. 2017. Cambrian trilobite biostratigraphy and its role in developing an integrated history of the Earth system. Lethaia50, 381–399.
https://doi.org/10.1111/let.12200

Barili, R., Neilson, J. E., Brasier, A. T., Goldberg, K., Bardola, T. P., de Ros, L. F. & Leng, M. 2018. Carbon isotopes, stratigraphy, and environmental change: the Middle–Upper Cambrian Positive Excursion (SPICE) in Port au Port Group, western Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences55, 1209–1222.
https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2018-0025

Barrande, J. 1852. Système Silurien du Centre de la Bohême. I. Recherches paléontologiques, vol. 1 (Crustacés: Trilobites). Prague, Paris, xx + 935 pp.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.14776

Bruton, D. L. & Harper, D. A. T. 2000. A mid-Cambrian shelly fauna from Ritland, western Norway and its palaeo­geographical implications. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark47, 29–51. 

Buchardt, B., Nielsen, A. T. & Schovsbo, N. H. 1997. Alunskiferen i Skandinavien. Geologisk Tidsskrift1997(3), 1–30.

Calner, M., Lehnert, O., Wu, R. C., Dahlqvist, P. & Joachimski, M. M. 2014. δ13C chemostratigraphy in the Lower–Middle Ordovician succession of Öland (Sweden) and the global significance of the MDICE. GFF136, 48–54.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2014.901409

Conway Morris, S. & Rushton, A. W. A. 1988. Precambrian to Tremadoc biotas in the Caledonides. In The Caledonian–Appalachian Orogen (Harris, A. L. & Fettes, D. J., eds), Geological Society Special Publication38, 93–109.
https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1988.038.01.07

Dahlqvist, P., Calner, M., Lehnert, O. & Ahlberg, P. 2013. A complete record of the ‘Lower’ Cambrian–Middle Ordovician succession of Öland, southern Sweden, based on the Tingskullen core. In Proceedings of the 3rd IGCP 591 Annual Meeting – Lund, Sweden, 9–19 June 2013 (Lindskog, A. & Mehlqvist, K., eds), pp. 74–76. Lund University.

Dawson, J. W. 1868. Acadian Geology. Second Edition. MacMillan and Company, London, 694 pp.

Edwards, C. T. & Saltzman, M. R. 2016. Paired carbon isotopic analysis of Ordovician bulk carbonate (δ13Ccarb) and organic matter (δ13Corg) spanning the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. Palaeogeography, Palaeo­climatology, Palaeoecology458, 102–117.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.08.005

Epstein, A. G., Epstein, J. B. & Harris, L. D. 1977. Conodont color alteration – an index to organic metamorphism. US Geological Survey Professional Paper995, 1–27.
https://doi.org/10.3133/pp995

Erlström, M. 2016. Litologisk och geokemisk karaktärisering av berggrundsavsnitt på södra Öland – resultat från kärnborr­ning vid Grönhögen. SGU-rapport,15, 1–37.

Esteve, J. 2014. Intraspecific variability in paradoxidid trilobites from the Purujosa trilobite assemblage (middle Cambrian, northeast Spain). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica59, 215–240.

Faggetter, L. E., Wignall, P. B., Pruss, S. B., Newton, R. J., Sun, Y. & Crowley, S. F. 2017. Trilobite extinctions, facies changes and the ROECE carbon isotope excursion at the Cambrian Series 2–3 boundary, Great Basin, western USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology478, 53–66.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.04.009

Faggetter, L. E., Wignall, P. B., Pruss, S. B., Sun, Y., Raine, R. J., Newton, R. J., Widdowson, M., Joachimski, M. M. & Smith, P. M. 2018. Sequence stratigraphy, chemo­stratigraphy and facies analysis of Cambrian Series 2 – Series 3 boundary strata in northwestern Scotland. Geological Magazine155, 865–877.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756816000947

Fan, R., Deng, S. H. & Zhang, X. L. 2011. Significant carbon isotope excursions in the Cambrian and their implications for global correlations. Science China Earth Sciences54, 1686–1694.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-011-4313-z

Fatka, O., Knížek, F. & Kozák, V. 2015. Condylopyge Hawle et Corda, 1847 in the Příbram-Jince Basin (Barrandian area, the Czech Republic, Agnostida). Acta Musei Nationalis PragaeB71, 103–109.
https://doi.org/10.14446/AMNP.2015.103

Fletcher, T. P., Theokritoff, G., Lord, G. S. & Zeoli, G. 2005. The early paradoxidid harlani trilobite fauna of Massachusetts and its correlatives in Newfoundland, Morocco, and Spain. Journal of Paleontology79, 312–336.
https://doi.org/10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079<0312:TEPHTF>2.0.CO;2

Geyer, G. 2019. A comprehensive Cambrian correlation chart. Episodes42, 321–332.
https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2019/019026

Geyer, G. & Corbacho, J. 2015. The Burlingiidae (Trilobita): revised generic composition, stratigraphy, and the first species from the early Middle Cambrian of West Gondwana. GFF137, 212–225.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2015.1027266

Geyer, G. & Shergold, J. 2000. The quest for internationally recognized divisions of Cambrian time. Episodes23, 188–195.
https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2000/v23i3/006

Geyer, G. & Vincent, T. 2015. The Paradoxides puzzle resolved: the appearance of the oldest paradoxidines and its bearing on the Cambrian Series 3 lower boundary. Paläontologische Zeitschrift89, 335–398.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-014-0225-5

Hagenfeldt, S. 1994. The Cambrian File Haidar and Borgholm formations in the Central Baltic and south central Sweden. Stockholm Contributions in Geology43, 69–110.

Hawle, I. & Corda, A. J. C. 1847. Prodrom einer Monographie der böhmischen Trilobiten. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Prague5(5), 117−292.

Henderson, M. A., Serra, F., Feltes, N. A., Albanesi, G. L. & Kah, L. C. 2018. Paired isotope records of carbonate and organic matter from the Middle Ordovician of Argentina: intrabasinal variation and effects of the marine chemocline. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology458, 107–130.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.10.018

Henningsmoen, G. 1952. Early middle Cambrian fauna from Rogaland, SW Norway (Paradoxides oelandicus stage = 1c α). Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift30, 13–31.

Hessland, I. 1955. Studies in the lihogenesis of the Cambrian and basal Ordovician of the Böda Hamn sequence of strata. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Upsala35, 35–109.

Holm, G. 1893. Sveriges kambrisk-siluriska Hyolithidæ och Conulariidæ. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC112, 1–172.

Jaanusson, V. 1960. The Viruan (Middle Ordovician) of Öland. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of the University of Uppsala38, 207–288.

Jaanusson, V. 1976. Faunal dynamics in the Middle Ordovician (Viruan) of Baltocandia. In The Ordovician System: Proceedings of a Palaeontological Association Symposium, Birmingham, September 1974 (Bassett, M. G., ed.), pp. 301–326. University of Wales Press and National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.

Jaanusson, V. 1979. Ordovician. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part A. Introduction (Robison, R. A. & Teichert, C., eds), pp. A136–A166. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas.

Jaanusson, V. 1995. Confacies differentiation and upper Middle Ordovician correlation in the Baltoscandian basin. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology44, 73–86.

Jaekel, O. 1909. Über die Agnostiden. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft61, 380–401.

Kobayashi, T. 1939. On the agnostids (Part 1). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Section II5(5), 69–198.

Landing, E., Peng, S. C., Babcock, L. E., Geyer, G. & Moczydłowska-Vidal, M. 2007. Global standard names for the lowermost Cambrian Series and Stage. Episodes30, 287–289.
https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2007/v30i4/004

Lin, J.-P., Sundberg, F. A., Jiang, G., Montañez, I. P. & Wotte, T. 2019. Chemostratigraphic correlations across the first major trilobite extinction and faunal turnovers between Laurentia and South China. Scientific Reports9:17392, 1–15.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53685-2

Lindskog, A. & Eriksson, M. E. 2017. Megascopic processes reflected in the microscopic realm: sedimentary and biotic dynamics of the Middle Ordovician “orthoceratite limestone” at Kinnekulle, Sweden. GFF139, 163–183.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2017.1291538

Lindskog, A. & Young, S. A. 2019. Dating of sedimentary rock intervals using visual comparison of carbon isotope records: a comment on the recent paper by Bergström et al. concerning the age of the Winneshiek Shale. Lethaia52, 299–303.
https://doi.org/10.1111/let.12316

Linnarsson, J. G. O. 1869. Om Vestergötlands cambriska och siluriska aflagringar. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar8(2), 1–89.

Linnarsson, G. 1876a. Geologiska iakttagelser under en resa på Öland. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar3, 71–86.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897609448163

Linnarsson, G. 1876b. On the Brachiopoda of the Paradoxides Beds of Sweden. Bihang till Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar3, 1–34.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.4014

Linnarsson, G. 1877. Om faunan i lagren med Paradoxides ölandicus. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm För­handlingar3, 352–375.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897709446406

Malinky, J. M. & Berg-Madsen, V. 1999. A revision of Holm’s Early and early Mid Cambrian hyoliths of Sweden. Palaeontology42, 25–65.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4983.00061

Martinsson, A. 1965. Aspects of a Middle Cambrian thanatotope on Öland. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhand­lingar87, 181–230.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035896509448903

Martinsson, A. 1974. The Cambrian of Norden. In Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the World. 2. Cambrian of the British Isles, Norden, and Spitsbergen (Holland, C. H., ed.), pp. 185–283. John Wiley & Sons, London.

Matthew, G. F. 1887. Illustrations of the fauna of the St. John Group. No. 4. – On the smaller-eyed trilobites of Division I., with a few remarks on the species of the higher divisions of the group. Canadian Record of Science2, 357–363.

Naimark, E. B. & Pegel, T. 2017. Revision of the Cambrian Agnostina (Trilobita?) from Russia. Paleontological Journal51, 1167–1248.
https://doi.org/10.1134/S0031030117110016

Nielsen, A. T. & Ahlberg, P. 2019. The Miaolingian, a new name for the ‘Middle’ Cambrian (Cambrian Series 3): identification of lower and upper boundaries in Baltoscandia. GFF141, 162–173.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2019.1621374

Nielsen, A. T. & Schovsbo, N. H. 2007. Cambrian to basal Ordovician lithostratigraphy in southern Scandinavia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark53, 47–92.

Nielsen, A. T. & Schovsbo, N. H. 2011. The Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia: Depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy and palaeogeography. Earth-Science Reviews107, 207–310.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.12.004

Nielsen, A. T. & Schovsbo, N. H. 2015. The regressive Early-Mid Cambrian ‘Hawke Bay Event’ in Baltoscandia: Epeirogenic uplift in concert with eustasy. Earth-Science Reviews151, 288–350.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.09.012

Nielsen, A. T., Weidner, T., Terfelt, F. & Høyberget, M. 2014. Upper Cambrian (Furongian) biostratigraphy in Scandinavia revisited: definition of superzones. GFF136, 193–197.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2013.878748

Nowicki, J. & Żylińska, A. 2019. The first occurrence of the earliest species of Acadoparadoxides outside West Gondwana (Cambrian; Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Geological Magazine156, 1027–1051.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756818000341

Peng, S. C., Babcock, L. E., Robison, R. A., Lin, H. L., Rees, M. N. & Saltzman, M. R. 2004. Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage (Cambrian). Lethaia37, 365–379.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00241160410002081

Peng, S. C., Babcock, L. E., Zuo, J. X., Lin, H. L., Zhu, X. J., Yang, X. F., Robison, R. A., Qi, Y. P., Bagnoli, G. & Chen, Y. 2009. The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Guzhangian Stage (Cambrian) in the Wuling Mountains, northwestern Hunan, China. Episodes32, 41–55.
https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2009/v32i1/006

Peng, S., Babcock, L. E. & Cooper, R. A. 2012. The Cambrian Period. In The Geologic Time Scale 2012 (Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Schmitz, M. D. & Ogg, G. M., eds), pp. 437–488. Elsevier, Oxford.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-59425-9.00019-6

Raymond, P. E. 1913. Some changes in the names of genera of trilobites. The Ottawa Naturalist26, 137–142.

Robison, R. A. 1982. Some Middle Cambrian agnostoid trilobites from western North America. Journal of Paleontology56, 132–160.

Robison, R. A. 1995. Revision of the Middle Cambrian trilobite Agnostus acadicus Hartt. Journal of Paleontology69, 302–307.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022336000034636

Robison, R. A., Rosova, A. V., Rowell, A. J. & Fletcher, T. P. 1977. Cambrian boundaries and divisions. Lethaia10, 257–262.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1977.tb00619.x

Rushton, A. W. A. 1966. The Cambrian trilobites from the Purley Shales of Warwickshire. Monographs of the Palae­ontographical Society120, 1–55.

Rushton, A. W. A. & Weidner, T. 2007. The Middle Cambrian paradoxidid trilobite Hydrocephalus from Jämtland, central Sweden. Acta Geologica Polonica57, 391–401.

Salvador, A. (ed.). 1994. International Stratigraphic Guide. 2nd Ed. International Union of Geological Sciences and the Geological Society of America, Trondheim, 214 pp.

Saltzman, M. R., Young, S. A., Kump, L. R., Gill, B. C., Lyons, T. W. & Runnegar, B. 2011. A pulse of atmospheric oxygen during the late Cambrian. National Academy of Sciences Proceedings108, 3876–3881.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011836108

Sars, M. 1835. Über einige neue oder unvollständig bekannte Trilobiten. Oken Isis (or Encyclopedische Zeitung), 1835, 333–343.

Schiffbauer, J. D., Huntley, J. W., Fike, D. A., Jeffrey, M. J., Gregg, J. M. & Shelton, K. L. 2017. Decoupling biogeochemical records, extinction, and environmental change during the Cambrian SPICE event. Science Advances3(3), e1602158.
https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1602158

Schovsbo, N. H. 2001. Why barren intervals? A taphonomic case study of the Scandinavian Alum Shale and its faunas. Lethaia34, 271–285.
https://doi.org/10.1080/002411601753293024

Sjögren, A. 1871. Bidrag till Ölands geologi. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar1871(6), 673–681.

Sjögren, A. 1872. Om några försteningar i Ölands kambriska lager. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar1, 67–80.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897209443816

Šnajdr, M. 1957. O nových trilobitech z českého kambria. Věstnik Ústrědního Ústavu Geologického32, 235–244.
https://doi.org/10.3109/10520295709111629

Stouge, S. 2004. Ordovician siliciclastics and carbonates of Öland, Sweden. In International Symposium on Early Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Palaeoclimate, September 1–3, 2004, Erlangen, Germany (Munnecke, A., Servais, T. & Schulbert, C., eds), Erlanger geologische Abhandlungen – Sonderband5, 91–111.

Sundberg, F. A., Karlstrom, K. E., Geyer, G., Foster, J. R., Hagadorn, J. W., Mohr, M. T., Schmitz, M. D., Dehler, C. M. & Crossey, L. J. 2020. Asynchronous trilobite extinctions at the early to middle Cambrian transition. Geology48, 441–445.
https://doi.org/10.1130/G46913.1

Terfelt, F., Eriksson, M. E. & Schmitz, B. 2014. The Cambrian–Ordovician transition in dysoxic facies in Baltica – diverse faunas and carbon isotope anomalies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology394, 59–73.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.11.021

Tjernvik, T. 1956. On the early Ordovician of Sweden. Stratigraphy and fauna. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of the University of Uppsala36, 107–284.

Wærn, B. 1952. Palaeontology and stratigraphy of the Cambrian and lowermost Ordovician of the Bödahamn core. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Upsala34, 223–250.

Walcott, C. D. 1908. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology, pt. 3 – Cambrian Brachiopoda, descriptions of new genera and species. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections53, 53–137.

Weidner, T. & Ebbestad, J. O. R. 2014. The early middle Cambrian agnostid Pentagnostus praecurrens (Westergård 1936) from Sweden. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists45, 403–419.

Weidner, T. & Nielsen, A. T. 2009. The Middle Cambrian Paradoxides paradoxissimus Superzone on Öland, Sweden. GFF131, 253–268.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035890903189827

Weidner, T. & Nielsen, A. T. 2014. A highly diverse trilobite fauna with Avalonian affinities from the Middle Cambrian Acidusus atavus Zone (Drumian Stage) of Bornholm, Denmark. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology12, 23–92.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14772019.2012.740080

Weidner, T., Rushton, A. W. A. & Ebbestad, J. O. R. 2014. A paradoxidid–agnostoid fauna from the mid-Cambrian (Stage 5) of the Caledonian Lower Allochthon on Tåsjöberget, Ångermanland, Sweden. GFF136, 513–530.
https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2014.888471

Westergård, A. H. 1922. Sveriges olenidskiffer. Sveriges geologiska undersökningCa18, 1–205.

Westergård, A. H. 1929. A deep boring through Middle and Lower Cambrian strata at Borgholm, Isle of Öland. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC355, 1–19.

Westergård, A. H. 1936. Paradoxides œlandicus beds of Öland with the account of a diamond boring through the Cambrian at Mossberga. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC394, 1–66.

Westergård, A. H. 1944. Borrningar genom alunskifferlagret på Öland och i Östergötland 1943. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC463, 1–22. 

Westergård, A. H. 1946. Agnostidea of the Middle Cambrian of Sweden. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC477, 1–140.

Westergård, A. H. 1947. Nya data rörande alunskifferlagret på Öland. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC483, 1–12.

Westergård, A. H. 1950. Non-agnostidean trilobites of the Middle Cambrian of Sweden. II. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC511, 1–57.

Westergård, A. H. 1953. Non-agnostidean trilobites of the Middle Cambrian of Sweden. III. Sveriges geologiska undersökningC526, 1–59.

Woods, M. A., Wilby, P. R., Leng, M. J., Rushton, A. W. A. & Williams, M. 2011. The Furongian (late Cambrian) Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) in Avalonia. Journal of the Geological Society, London168, 851–861.
https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-76492010-111

Wotte, T., Strauss, H. & Sundberg, F. A. 2011. Carbon and sulfur isotopes from the Cambrian Series 2–Cambrian Series 3 of Laurentia and Siberia. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin67, 43–63.

Wu, R. C., Calner, M. & Lehnert, O. 2017. Integrated conodont biostratigraphy and carbon isotope chemostratigraphy in the Lower–Middle Ordovician of southern Sweden reveals a complete record of the MDICE. Geological Magazine154, 334–353.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756816000017

Zenker, J. 1833. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Urwelt. Organische Reste (Petrefacten) aus der Altenburger Braunkohlen-Formation, dem Blankenburger Quader­sandstein, jenaischen bunten Sandstein und böhmischen Uebergangsbirge, mit 6 illuminirten Kupfertafeln. Mauke, Jena, 67 pp.

Zhao, Y. L., Peng, J., Yuan, J. L., Guo, Q. J., Tai, T. S., Yin, L. M., Parsley, L. R., Yang, Y. N., Yang, X. L. & Zhang, P. X. 2012. Stop 5: The Kaili Formation and Kaili Biota at the Wuliu-Zengjiayan section of Guizhou Province, China and proposed Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the unnamed Cambrian Series 3, Stage 5. Journal of Guizhou University (Natural Sciences)29 (Supplement 1), 108–124.

Zhao, Y. L., Yuan, J. L., Babcock, L. E., Guo, Q. J., Peng, J., Yin, L. M., Yang, X. L., Peng, S. C., Wang, C. J., Gaines, R. R., Esteve, J., Tai, T. S., Yang, R. D., Wang, Y., Sun, H. J. & Yang, Y. N. 2019. Global Standard Stratotype-Section and Point (GSSP) for the conterminous base of the Miaolingian Series and Wuliuan Stage (Cambrian) at Balang, Jianhe, Guizhou, China. Episodes42, 165–184.
https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2019/019013

Zhu, M. Y., Babcock, L. E. & Peng, S. C. 2006. Advances in Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology: integrating correlation techniques, paleobiology, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Palaeoworld15, 217–222.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2006.10.016

Zhu, M. Y., Yang, A. H., Yuan, J. L., Li, G. X., Zhang, J. M., Zhao, F. C., Ahn, S. Y. & Miao, L. Y. 2019. Cambrian integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China. Science China Earth Sciences62, 25–60.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-017-9291-0

Żylińska, A. & Masiak, M. 2007. Cambrian trilobites from Brzechów, Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) and their significance in stratigraphic correlation and biogeographic reconstructions. Geological Magazine144, 661–686.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756807003366


Back to Issue