ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1952
 
Earth Science cover
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN 1736-7557 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-4728 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.789

The stratigraphic imprint of a mid-Telychian (Llandovery, Early Silurian) glaciation on far-field shallow-water carbonates, Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada; pp. 207–213

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/earth.2014.20

Authors
François Clayer, André Desrochers

Abstract

The near-field stratigraphic record of the Early Silurian glaciations is well documented in the literature. Data from far-field areas are, however, sparse. One of the best far-field stratigraphic records of these Llandovery glaciations is exposed on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. Eight shallow-water paleotropical facies are present close to the mid-Telychian Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary along the south-central coast of Anticosti Island. These can be grouped into three facies associations that include, from bottom to top: a carbonate facies association (FA-1), a mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies association (FA-2) and an encrinitic facies association (FA-3). These mid- to outer-ramp strata represent deposition mostly from episodic, high-energy storm events as evidenced by their sharp bases, hummocky cross-stratification, large wave ripples, gutter casts and wave-enhanced sediment gravity flow deposits. Superimposed on a long-term regressive trend, one main transgressive–regressive (TR) sequence and four meter-scale TR cycles are evident, indicating a multi-order stratigraphic framework developed under the influence of glacio-eustasy. The Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary, a regional discontinuity surface caused by a forced regression, corresponds to the onset of a far-field mid-Telychian glaciation.


References

Bordet, E., Malo, M. & Kirkwood, D. 2010. A structural study of Western Anticosti Island, St. Lawrence Platform, Québec: a fracture analysis that integrates surface and subsurface structural data. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 58, 36–55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/gscpgbull.58.1.36

Brunton, F. R. 1988. Silurian (Llandovery–Wenlock) Patch Reef Complexes of the Chicotte Formation, Anticosti Island, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, 190 pp.

Brunton, F. R. & Copper, P. 1994. Paleoecologic, temporal, and spatial analysis of Early Silurian reefs of the Chicotte Formation, Anticosti Island, Québec, Canada. Facies, 31, 57–80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02536933

Caputo, M. V. 1998. Ordovician–Silurian glaciations and global sea-level changes. In Silurian Cycles: Linkages of Dynamic Stratigraphy with Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Tectonic Changes (Landing, E. & Johnson, M. E., eds), New York State Museum Bulletin, 491, 15–25.

Clayer, F. 2012. Sediment Dynamics and Stratigraphic Architecture of a Lower Silurian Storm-Dominated Carbonate Ramp, Anticosti Island, Québec, Canada. M.Sc. thesis, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Québec, Canada, 85 pp., www.ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/ 23149/1/Clayer_Francois_2012-thesis.pdf [accessed 2 October 2014].

Copper, P. & Long, D. G. F. 1990. Stratigraphic revision of the Jupiter Formation, Anticosti Island, Canada; a major reference section above the Ordovician–Silurian Boundary. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 23, 11–36.

Desrochers, A. 2006. Rocky shoreline deposits in the Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery, Telychian) Chicotte Formation, Anticosti Island, Québec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 43, 1205–1214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/e06-054

Desrochers, A., Bourque, P.-A. & Neuweiler, F. 2007. Diagenetic versus biotic accretionary mechanisms of bryozoan-sponge buildups (Lower Silurian, Anticosti Island, Canada). Journal of Sedimentary Research, 77, 564–571.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2007.059

Desrochers, A., Farley, C., Achab, A., Asselin, E. & Riva, J. F. 2010. A far-field record of the End Ordovician Glaciation: the Ellis Bay Formation, Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 296, 248–263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.017

Díaz-Martínez, E. & Grahn, Y. 2007. Early Silurian glaciation along the western margin of Gondwana (Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina): palaeogeographic and geo­dynamic setting. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 245, 62–81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.02.018

Dumas, S., Arnott, R. W. C. & Southard, J. B. 2005. Experiments on oscillatory-flow and combined flow bed forms: implications for interpreting parts of the shallow marine rock record. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 75, 501–513.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2005.039

Dumas, S. & Arnott, R. W. C. 2006. Origin of hummocky and swaley cross-stratification – the controlling influence of unidirectional current strength and aggradation rate. Geology, 34, 1073–1076.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G22930A.1

Embry, A., Johannessen, E., Owen, D., Beauchamp, B. & Gianolla, P. 2007. Sequence Stratigraphy as a “concrete” stratigraphic discipline. In Report of the ISSC Task Group on Sequence Stratigraphy, 1–104.

Ghienne, J.-F., Moreau, J., Degermann, L. & Rubino, J.-L. 2013. Lower Palaeozoic unconformities in an intracratonic platform setting: glacial erosion versus tectonics in the eastern Murzuq Basin (southern Libya). International Journal of Earth Sciences, 102, 455–482.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00531-012-0815-y

Ghienne, J.-F., Desrochers, A., Paris,  F., Achab, A., Asselin, E., Loi, A., Dabard, M.-P., Farley, C., Wickson, S. & Veizer, J. 2014. A Cenozoic-style scenario for the end-Ordovician glaciation. Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/ncomms5.

Gouldey, J. C., Saltzman, M. R., Young, S. A. & Kaljo, D. 2010. Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Llandovery (Early Silurian): implications for tectonics and weathering. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 296, 264–275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.035

Grahn, Y. & Caputo, M. V. 1992. Early Silurian glaciations in Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 99, 9–15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(92)90003-N

Johnson, M. E. 2006. Relationship of Silurian sea-level fluctuations to oceanic episodes and events. GFF, 128, 115–121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11035890601282115

Johnson, M. E. 2010. Tracking Silurian eustasy: alignment of empirical evidence or pursuit of deductive reasoning? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 296, 276–284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.11.024

Long, D. G. F. 2007. Tempestite frequency curves: a key to Late Ordovician and Early Silurian subsidence, sea-level change, and orbital forcing in the Anticosti Foreland Basin, Québec, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 44, 413–431.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/e06-099

Loydell, D. K. 2007. Early Silurian positive δ13C excursions and their relationship to glaciations, sea-level changes and extinction events. Geological Journal, 42, 531–546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gj.1090

Munnecke, A. & Männik, P. 2009. New biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data from the Chicotte Formation (Llandovery, Anticosti Island, Laurentia) compared with the Viki core (Estonia, Baltica). Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 58, 159–169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/earth.2009.3.01

Munnecke, A., Calner, M., Harper, D. A. T. & Servais, T. 2010. Ordovician and Silurian sea-water chemistry, sea level, and climate: a synopsis. Palaeogeography, Palaeo­climatology, Palaeoecology, 296, 389–413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.08.001

Page, A., Zalasiewicz, J., Williams, M. & Popov, L. 2007. Were transgressive black shales a negative feedback modulating glacioeustasy in the Early Palaeozoic Icehouse? In Deep-Time Perspectives on Climate Change: Marrying the Signal from Computer Models and Biological Proxies (Williams, M., Haywood, A. M., Gregory, F. J. & Schmidt, D. N., eds), pp. 123–156. Special Publication of the Geological Society of London, The Micro­palaeontological Society.

Sami, T. & Desrochers, A. 1992. Episodic sedimentation on an Early Silurian storm-dominated carbonate ramp, Becscie and Merrimack Formations, Anticosti Island, Canada. Sedimentology, 39, 355–381.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1992.tb02122.x

Scotese, C. R. 2010. PALEOMAP website. http://www.scotese.com [accessed 2 October 2014].


Back to Issue