eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Earth Science cover
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN 1736-7557 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-4728 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.789

Towards unification of terrestrial gravity data sets in Estonia; pp. 229–245

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/earth.2009.4.02

Artu Ellmann, Tarmo All, Tõnis Oja


Gravity data in Estonia have been collected by different institutions over many decades. This study assesses the suitability of available gravity data for ensuring a 1 cm geoid modelling accuracy over Estonia and in the Baltic Sea region in general. The main focus of this study is on the determination and elimination of discrepancies between three nationwide datasets. It was detected that one tested historic gravity dataset contained inadmissible systematic biases with respect to other tested datasets. Possible ways of gravity data improvement are discussed. More specifically, new field observation campaigns and aspects of using their outcomes in subsequent regional geoid modelling are suggested.


All, T., Gromov, O., Jeresko, J. & Šuvalova, M. 2002. Kesk-Eesti gravimeetrilise andmestiku revideerimine ja digitali­seerimine [Reconciliation and digitization of gravity data-sets in the central part of Estonia]. Tallinn, EGF 7456, Technical report, 56 pp. [in Estonian].

All, T. & Gromov, O. 2007 Geoloogilise baaskaardi Tapa (6431) lehe gravimeetrilise teemakihi täiendamine [Complementing the gravimetric layer of the geological base-map Tapa (6431) sheet]. Tallinn, EGF 7894, Technical report, 33 pp. [in Estonian].

Arnautov, G. P., Bulanzhe, Yu. D., Kalish, E. N., Stus¢, Yu. F. & Tarasjuk, V. G. 1977. The measurements of the absolute value of gravity acceleration at gravity points in Ledovo (Moscow), Tallinn, and Tbilisi. In Rezul'taty vysokotochnykh gravimetricheskikh izmerenij [Results of high-precision gravimetric measurements], pp. 72–77. Iz-vo “Sovetskoe radio”, Moskva [in Russian].

Azarkina, E., Smolina, T. & Ukhryumkina, N. 1984. Otchet o rabote gravimetricheskoj partii 47/83 po sozdaniyu gravimetricheskikh punktov II kl. na territorii Pribaltiki i Turkmenskoj SSR i étalonnykh gravimetricheskikh poligonov v 1983 g. [Establishing the II order gravity points and the etalon polygons in the Baltic States and Turkmen SSR by working group No. 47/83 in 1983]. SRGÈ NPO “Neftegeofizika”, Moskva, Technical report [in Russian].

[BGC] Baltische Geodätische Kommission. 1937. Relative Bestimmungen der Schwerkraft auf den Landeszentralen. Sonderveröffentlichung No 6, Helsinki, 128 pp.

Ellmann, A. 1999.Adjustment of the Estonian high-precision levelling network as a part of the United European Levelling Network (UELN). Unpublished Technical Report, Estonian Land Board, Tallinn, 99 pp. [in Estonian].

Ellmann, A. 2001. Least Squares Modification of Stokes Formula with Applications to the Estonian Geoid. Division of Geodesy, Royal Institute of Technology, Report No. 1056, Stockholm, viii+98 pp.

Ellmann, A. 2002. An improved gravity anomaly grid and a geoid model for Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 51, 199–214.

Ellmann, A. 2004. The Geoid for the Baltic Countries Determined by the Least Squares Modification of Stokes’ Formula. Department of Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology, Geodesy Report No. 1061, Stockholm, viii+80 pp.

Ellmann, A. 2005. Two deterministic and three stochastic modifications of Stokes’s formula: a case study for the Baltic countries. Journal of Geodesy, 79, 11–23.

Ellmann, A. Kaminskis, J., Parseliunas, E., Jürgenson, H. & Oja, T. 2009. Evaluation results of the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08 over the Baltic countries. Newton's Bulletin, 4, 110–121.

[FGI] Finnish Geodetic Institute. 2003. Certificate of Calibration No 6/2003, National Standard Laboratory.

Forsberg, R. 2001. Development of a Nordic cm-geoid with basics of geoid determination. In Nordic Geodesy Towards the 21st Century. Lecture Notes for Autumn School, Nordic Geodetic Commission (Harsson, B. G., ed.), pp. 67–88. Statens kartverk, Geodetic Publication 2001:1.

Forsberg, R., Olesen, A. V., Keller, K., Møller, M., Gidskehaug, A. & Solheim, D. 2001. Airborne gravity and geoid surveys in the Arctic and Baltic Seas. In Proceedings of International Symposium on Kinematic Systems in Geodesy, Geomatics and Navigation (KIS-2001), Banff, June 2001, pp. 586–593.

Forsberg, R., Olesen, A. V., Munkhtsetseg, D. & Amarzaya, A. 2007. Downward continuation and geoid determination in Mongolia from airborne and surface gravimetry and SRTM topography. In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium of the International Gravity Field Service “Gravity Field of the Earth”, Istanbul, Turkey (Forsberg, R. & Kilicoglu, A., eds), Harita Dergisi (Journal of Mapping), 18, 259–264.

Gromov, O. & Gromova, G. 1968. Otchet o gravimetricheskoj s²emke masshtaba 1 : 25 000 na territorii Tsentral¢noj Éstonii za 1965–1967 gody [Gravity mapping at a scale of 1 : 25 000 in the central part of Estonia, 1965–1967]. Tallinn, EGF 2994, Technical report, 128 pp. [in Russian].

Gromov, O. & Gromova, G. 1972. Otchet o geofizicheskikh rabotakh po kartirovaniyu kristallicheskogo fundamenta na uchastke Tapa-Rakvere [Geophysical survey of crystalline basement in the Tapa–Rakvere region]. Keila, EGF 3196, Technical report, 186 pp. [in Russian].

Gromov, O., Grünberg, R., Kajak, K., Kajak, H. & Tassa, V. 1981. Otchet o gidrogeologicheskoj i inzhenerno–geologisheskoj s²emke masshtaba 1 : 50 000 dlya melioratsii ploshchadi Tartu [Hydrogeological and applied geological survey, at a scale of 1 : 50 000 for amelio­ration of the Tartu region]. Tallinn, EGF 3796, Technical report, 162 pp. [in Russian].

Heiskanen, W. A. & Moritz, H. 1967. Physical Geodesy. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 364 pp.

Hwang, C., Hsiao, Y.-S., Shih, H.-C., Yang, M., Chen, K.-H., Forsberg, R. & Olesen, A. V. 2007. Geodetic and geo­physical results from a Taiwan airborne gravity survey: data reduction and accuracy assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, B04407.

Jürgenson, H. 2003. Eesti täppisgeodi arvutus [Determination of Estonian precise geoid]. PhD Thesis, Estonian Agri­cultural University, Tartu, 157 pp. [in Estonian].

Kaju, A. 2003. Voldemar Maasiku regionaalmõõdistuse andmete kontroll [Checking Voldemar Maasik’s regional measurements database]. Bachelor’s thesis, Department of Geomatics, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, 38 pp. [in Estonian].

Kaminskis, J. & Forsberg, R. 1997. A new detailed geoid for Latvia. In Gravity, Geoid and Marine Geodesy (Segawa J, Fujimoto, H. & Okubo, S., eds), pp. 621–628. IAG Symposium Series, Volume 117, Springer Verlag.

Künnapas, I. 2005. Gravimeetrilise regionaalse andmebaasi kontrollimine [Revising the gravimetric regional database]. Bachelor’s thesis, Department of Geomatics, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, 67 pp. [in Estonian].

Maasik, V. 1948. O gravimetricheskikh izmereniyakh na territorii Éstonskoj SSR i ikh resul¢tatakh s 1929 po 1940 g AN ESSR [On gravity measurements on the territory of the Estonian SSR and their results from 1929 to 1940]. Tallinn, 85 pp. [in Russian].

Maasik, V. 1958. Gravimetricheskie issledovaniya territorii Éstonskoj SSR (Opredelenie mestnykh iskhodnykh gravi­metricheskikh punktov 1957 g) [Gravimetric studies on the territory of the Estonian SSR (Establishment of the local gravity reference points in 1957)]. Institut Geologii AN ESSR, Tallinn, 103 pp. [in Russian].

[ME] Ministry of Environment. 2008. Geodeetiline süsteem. Keskkonnaministri määrus nr. 26, 30. juuni 2008. a. [Geodetic system. Regulation No. 26 of the Minister of Environment, June 30, 2008]. Tallinn [in Estonian].

Molodenskij, M. S. 1945. The Principal Problems of Geodetic Gravimetry. Trudy TsNIIGAiK, 131, Moscow [in Russian].

Morelli, C. (ed.). 1974. The International Gravity Standardi­zation Net 1971. International Association of Geodesy Special Publication, 4, 1–194.

Moritz, H. 1980. Advanced Physical Geodesy. Wichmann, Karlsruhe, 500 pp.

Moritz, H. 1992. Geodetic Reference System 1980. Bulletin Géodésique, 66, 187–192.

Oja, T. 2005. Uuenev Eesti gravimeetriline võrk [Modernization of the Estonian gravity network]. Geodeet, 30, 24–28 [in Estonian].

Oja, T. 2007. Gravimeetrilised süsteemid ja võrgud Eestis: IGNS71 ja EGS ajavahemikus 1975–2007 [Gravity systems and networks in Estonia: IGSN71 and EGS from 1975 to 2007]. Geodeet, 35, 11–20 [in Estonian].

Oja, T. 2008. New solution for the Estonian gravity network GV-EST95. In The 7th International Conference “Environmental Engineering” Selected Papers, Vol. III, pp. 1409–1414. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.

Oja, T. & Sildvee, H. 2003. Secular gravity variations on the gravity base network of Estonia. In Baltic Surveying ’03 (Maasikamäe, S., ed.), Transactions of the Estonian Agricultural University, 216, 122–127.

Pavlis, N. K., Holmes, S. A., Kenyon, S. C. & Factor, J. K. 2008. An Earth Gravitational Model to Degree 2160: EGM2008. Presented at the 2008 General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, Vienna, Austria, April 13–18, 2008.

Savchenko, A. 1992. Otchet o sozdanii opornykh gravi­metricheskikh punktov III kl. v respublikakh Pribaltiki v 1991 g. [Establishing the III order gravity points in Baltic States in 1991]. GGP “Spetsgeofizika”, Moskva, Technical report [in Russian].

Sildvee, H. 1998. Gravity Measurements of Estonia. Report of the Finnish Geodetic Institute, 98:3, 8 pp.

Sildvee, H. & Oja, T. 2002. Eesti gravimeetriline põhivõrk [Estonian gravity base network]. Geodeet, 21, 10–13 [in Estonian].

Stokes, G. G. 1849. On the variations of gravity on the surface of the Earth. Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 8, 672–695.

Torge, W. 1989. Gravimetry. Walter de Gryter, Berlin, 465 pp.

Vermeer, M. & Kollo, K. 2007. Geoid precision from limited-area gravimetric surveys. Geodesy and Cartography, 33, 3–8.
Back to Issue