PEOPLE’S AGE AFFECTS WHAT QUALITIES THEY VALUE IN CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF ETHNIC ESTONIANS AND RUSSIAN-SPEAKING MINORITY ACROSS TIME; pp. 299–312Full article in PDF format | https://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2017.4.01
The study compares socialization values held by respondents of different ages from ethnic Estonian and Russian-speaking minority groups living in Estonia over a period of 6 years. Data were collected in three rounds (2006, 2008, and 2012) of the European Social Survey (ESS) in Estonia. In each round representative samples of the non-institutionalized population aged 15 years and older filled out the Socialization Value Questionnaire (Tulviste 2013). They were asked to mark five qualities in a list of 17, which they considered the most important to develop in children at home. The study found that although the consensus between socialization values of two social groups has been relatively high and stable in the three rounds, it was bigger in older people than younger ones. Respondents placed social values (except independence – that is a self-direction value) among the qualities most desired in children. The stability vs. change and sex were linked to the specific quality rather than to the type of socialization values. The study contributed to the existing literature by demonstrating that the socialization values held by people relate strongly to their age: older people tended to choose qualities related to social values more frequently, and those of self-direction less frequently than younger people.
Alwin, D. F. (1988) “From obedience to autonomy: changes in traits desired in children, 1924–1978”. Public Opinion Quarterly 52, 33–52.
Arnett, J. J. (1998) “Learning to stand alone: the contemporary American transition to adulthood in cultural and historical context”. Human Development 41, 295–315.
Bardi, A. and R. Goodwin (2011) “The dual route to value change: individual processes and cultural moderators”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 42, 271−287.
Bardi, A., J. A. Lee, N. Hoffmann-Towfigh, and G. Soutar (2009) “The structure of intraindividual value change”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97, 913−929.
Benish-Weisman, M., S. Levy, and A. Knafo (2013) “Parents differentiate between their personal values and their socialization values: the role of adolescents’ values”. Journal of Research on Adolescence 23, 4, 614–620.
Boehnke, K. (2001) “Parent-offspring value transmission in a societal context. Suggestions for a utopian research design – with empirical underpinnings”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32, 241–255.
Boehnke, K., A. Hadjar, and D. Baier (2007) “Parent-child value similarity: the role of zeitgeist”. Journal of Marriage and Family 69, 778–792.
Cashmore, J. A. and J. J. Goodnow (1985) “Agreement between generations – a two-process approach”. Child Development 56, 493–501.
Citlak, B., B. Leyendecker, A. Schoelmerich, and R. Harwood (2008) “Socialization goals among first- and second-generation migrant Turkish and German mothers”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 32, 56–65.
Diel, M., S. K. Owen, and L. M. Youngblade (2004) “Agency and communion attributes in adults’ spontaneous self-representations”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 28, 1-15.
Durgel E. S., B. Leyendecker, B. Yagmurlu, and R. Harwood (2009) “Sociocultural influences on German and Turkish immigrant mothers’ long-term socialization goals”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 40, 834–852.
Greenfield, P. M., H. Keller, A. Fuligni, and A. Maynard (2003) “Cultural development through universal developmental tasks”. Annual Review of Psychology 54, 1–23.
Grusec, J. E., E. E. Goodnow, and L. Kuczynski (2000) “New directions in analyses of parenting contributions to children’s acquisition of values”. Child Development 71, 205–211.
Harkness, S. and C. Super (2006) “Themes and variations: parental ethnotheories in western cultures“. In Kenneth H. Rubin and Ock Boon Chung, eds. Parenting beliefs, behaviors, and parent-child relations: a cross-cultural perspective, 61–79. New York: Psychology Press.
Hirsjärvi, S. and S. Perälä-Littunen (2001) “Parental child-rearing beliefs”. European Journal of Psychology of Education 16, 87–116.
Hoff, E., B. Laursen, and T. Tardif (2002) “Socioeconomic status and parenting”. In Marc H. Bornstein, ed. Handbook of parenting. Vol. 2: Biology and ecology of parenting. 2nd ed., 231–252. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Inglehart, R. and W. E. Baker (2000) “Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values”. American Sociological Review 65, 19−51.
Kagitçibaşi, Ç. (2005) “Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context. Implications for self and family”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36, 403–422.
Kagitçibaşi, Ç. and B. Ataca (2005) „Value of children and family change: a three‐decade portrait from Turkey“. Applied Psychology: An International Review 54, 317–337.
Keller, H., J. Borke, R. Yovsi, A. Lohaus, and H. Jensen (2005) “Cultural orientations and historical changes as predictors of parenting behavior”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 29, 229–237.
Keller, H. and B. Lamm (2005) “Parenting as the expression of sociohistorical time: the case of German individualization”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 29, 238–246.
Knafo, A. and S. H. Schwartz (2001) “Value socialisation in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32, 213−228.
Kohn, Melvin L. (1977) Class and conformity: a study in values. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lin, C.-Y. C. and V. R. Fu (1990) “A comparison of child -rearing practices among Chinese, immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian-American parents”. Child Development 61, 429-433.
OECD (2014) TALIS 2013 Results: an international perspective on teaching and learning. TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en
Roest, A. M. C., J. S. Dubas, and J. R. M. Gerris (2009) “Value transmissions between fathers, mothers, and adolescent and emerging adult children: the role of the family climate”. Journal of Family Psychology 23,146–155.
Schwartz, S. H. and A. Bardi (1997) “Influences of adaptation to communist rule on value priorities in Eastern Europe”. Political Psychology 18, 385-410.
Serek, J., P. Macek, S.Jezek, and L. Lacinova (2014) “Twenty years after the Velvet revolution: shifts in Czech adolescents’ perceptions of family, school, and society”. Journal of Adolescent Research 29, 738–764.
Suizzo, M.-A. (2007) “Valued characteristics of children in a changing social environment”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 38, 506–530.
Tam, K. P. and S. L. Lee (2010) “What values do parents want to socialize in their children? The role of perceived normative values”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 41, 175–181.
Tulviste, T (2013) “Socialization values of mothers and fathers: does the child’s age matter?” Trames 17, 2, 29–140.
Tulviste, T. and M. Ahtonen (2007) “Child-rearing values of Estonian and Finnish mothers and fathers”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 38, 137–155.
Tulviste, T., K. Kall, and A. Rämmer (2017) “Value priorities of younger and older adults in seven European countries”. Social Indicators Research 133, 931–942.
Tulviste, T. and E. Kikas (2010) “Qualities to be developed in Estonian children at home and at school”. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 31, 315–321.
Tulviste, T., K. Konstabel, and P. Tulviste (2014) “Stability and change in value consensus of ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority”. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 39, 93–102.
Tulviste, T., L. Mizera, and B. De Geer (2012) “Socialization values in stable and changing societies: a comparative study of Estonian, Swedish, and Russian Estonian mothers”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 43, 480–497.
Back to Issue