eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/tr.2014.2.02

Karmen Kalk, Piret Luik, Merle Taimalu, Karin Täht


Over the years, researchers have used several methods to investigate reflection. These are based on various theories. Researchers mainly use qualitative methods to study reflection, but mixed methods and quantitative studies are carried out as well. A number of different scales have been developed and used to measure reflection. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the internal consistency and factor structure of two instruments for measuring reflection to find out the validity and reliability of such assessment instruments. Data was collected using two questionnaires to estimate reflection at the start of the teach­ing practice and induction year. The results indicated that both instruments of reflection demonstrated the validation and reliability of measure reflection. The study also showed that these scales are suitable to use in different disciplines in teacher education.


Akbari, Ramin, Foad Behzadpoor, and Babak Dadvand (2010) “Development of English language teaching reflection inventory”. System 38, 1, 211–227.

Alger, Christianna (2006) “What went well, what didn't go so well: growth of reflection in pre-service teachers”. Reflective Practice 7, 3, 287–301.

Armutcu, Nurdan and Saziye Yaman (2010) “ELT pre-service teachers’ teacher reflection through practicum”. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 3, 28–35.

Aukes, Leo C., Jelle Geertsma, Janke Cohen-Schotanus, Rein P. Zwierstra, and Joris P. J. Slaets (2007) “The development of a scale to measure personal reflection in medical practice and education”. Medical Teacher 29, 177–182.

Boekaerts, Monique (1997) “Self-regulated learning: a new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students”. Learning and Instruction 7, 2, 161–186.

Brown, Timothy A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, London: The Guilford Press.

Browne, Michael W. and Robert Cudeck (1993) „Alternate ways of assessing model fit“. In Testing structural equation model, 136–162. Kenneth A. Bollen and J.Scott Long, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Chretien, Katherine, Ellen Goldman, and Charles Faselis (2008) “The reflective writing class blog: Using technology to promote reflection and professional development”. Journal of General Internal Medicine 23, 12, 2066–2070.

Dewey, John (1930) “Democracy and education”. In An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Dewey, John (1933) How we think: a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: D. C. Heath.

Gibbs, Graham (1988) Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. London: Further Education Unit.

Grant, Anthony A., John Franklin, and Peter Langford (2002) “The self-reflection and insight scale: a new measure of private self-consciousness”. Social Behavior and Personality 30, 8, 821–836.

Hatton, Nevelle and David Smith (1995) “Reflection in teacher education: towards definition and implementation”. Teaching and Teacher Education 11, 1, 33–49.

Hendriks, Jolijn A. A., Willem K. B. Hofstee, and Boele De Raad (1999) “The five-factor personality inventory (FFPI)”. Personality and Individual Differences 27, 307–325.

Hu, Li-tze and Peter M. Bentler (1999) “Cut-off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives”. Structural Equation Modeling 6, 1–55.

Kember, David, Doris Y.P. Leung, Alice Jones, Alice Yuen Loke, Jan Mckay, Kit Sinclair, Harrison Tse, Celia Webb, Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Maria Wong, and Ella Yeung. (2000) “Develop­ment of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking”. Assessment & Evalua­tion in Higher Education 25, 4, 381–395.

Killeavy, Maureen and Anne Moloney (2010) “Reflection in a social space: can blogging support reflective practice for beginning teachers?”. Teaching and Teacher Education 26, 1070–1076.

Krebel, Carolin (2005) “Reflection on teaching and the scholarship of teaching: focus on science instructors”. Higher Education 50, 323–359.

Leung, Doris Y.P. and David Kember (2003) “The relationship between approaches to learning and reflection upon practice”. Educational Psychology 23, 1, 61–71.

Luttenberg, Johan and Theo Berger (2008) “Teacher reflection: the development of a typology”. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 14, 5–6, 543–566.

Maaranen, Katriina and Leena Krokfors (2007) “Time to think? Primary school teacher students reflecting on their MA thesis research processes”. Reflective Practice 8, 3, 359–373.

Mezirow, Jack (1991) Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ottesen, Eli (2007) “Reflection in teacher education”. Reflective Practice 8, 1, 31–46.

Richardson, Virginia (1997) “Constructivist teaching and teacher education: theory and practice”. In Constructivist teacher education: building new understandings, 3–14. Virginia Richardson, ed. London: The Falmer Press.

Scanlan, Judith M. and Wanda M. Chernomas (1997) “Developing the reflective teacher”. Journal of Advanced Nursing 25, 5, 1138–1143.

Shoffner, Melanie (2009) “The place of personal: exploring the affective domain through reflection in teacher preparation”. Teaching and Teacher Education 25, 783–789.

Sobral, Dejano T. (2000) “An appraisal of medical students’ reflection-in-learning”. Medical Educa­tion 34, 182–187.

Sobral, Dejano T. (2001) “Medical students’ reflection in learning in relation to approaches to study and academic achievement”. Medical Teacher 23, 5, 508–513.

Sobral, Dejano T. (2005) “Medical students’ mindset for reflective learning: a re-validation study of the reflection in learning scale”. Advances in Health Sciences Education 10, 303–314.

Tigelaar, Dineke E. H., Diana H. J. M. Dolmans, Willem S. De Grave, Ineke H. A. P. Wolfhagen, and Cees P. M. Van Der Vleuten (2006) “Portfolio as a tool to stimulate teachers’ reflection”. Medical Teacher 28, 3, 277–282.

Yang, Shih-Hsien (2009) “Using blogs to enhance critical reflection and community of practice”. Educational Technology & Society 12, 2, 11–21.

Back to Issue