TRANSCENDENTAL FUTURE – IS IT A HEALTHY BELIEF OR A TIME PERSPECTIVE? THE TRANSCENDENTAL-FUTURE TIME PERSPECTIVE INVENTORY (TTPI) IN ESTONIAN; pp. 57–75Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/tr.2014.1.04
This article assesses whether the second version of the Transcendental-future Time Perspective Inventory (TTPI; Zimbardo and Boyd 2008) measures a time perspective or a belief and how it is related to mental health in a highly secular country. The TTPI adapted into the Estonian language is described. Study 1 reports the results of validation performed on a large sample of adult students at different levels of education. Study 2 was carried out in a clinical sample with people turning to psychotherapy. Females scored significantly higher on TTPI than males, other demographic variables (age, level of education) were not related. TTPI scores were not related to mindfulness, self-esteem, well-being and depression. The TTPI is a reliable scale measuring belief in an afterlife, but not a time perspective. The TTPI items should ask how often people imagine themselves in a transcendental future context and if these thoughts are positive or negative.
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