DEVELOPMENTAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF FIELD-DEPENDENCE IN 11 AND 12 YEAR OLD ESTONIAN AND FINNISH STUDENTS; pp. 89–101Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/tr.2014.1.06
The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the field dependence-independence (FDI) construct in a sample of 11 and 12 year old Estonian and Finnish elementary students. Scores on the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) obtained at the end of grade five and at the end of grade six were compared. The findings revealed that Finnish students were more field-independent (FI) than field-dependent (FD) than Estonian children at both grade 5 and grade 6. Results clearly demonstrated that the number of FI children increased for both groups from grade 5 to 6. Generally, the results were consistent with previous research in regards to both developmental and cultural aspects of FDI.
Angeli, Charoula and Nicos Valanides (2004) “Examining the effects of text-only and text- and-visual instructional materials on the achievement of field-dependent and field-independent learners during problem-solving with modeling software”. Educational Technology Research and Development 52, 4, 23–36.
Arya, K. Yogesh and Ramesh C. Mishra (2012) “Development of field dependent-field independent cognitive style and other cognitive functions in school children”. Social Science International 28, 2, 359–370.
Bagley, Christopher (1995) “Field independence in children in group-oriented cultures: comparisons from Chine, Japan, and North America”. The Journal of Social Psychology 135, 4, 523–525.
Berry, W. John (1991) “Understanding and managing multiculturalism”. Psychology and Developing Societies 3, 17–49.
Cassidy, Simon (2004) “Learning styles: an overview of theories, models and measures”. Educational Psychology 24, 4, 419–444.
Dewey, A. Russell (2004) Introduction to psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.
Duffy, Sean, Rie Toriyama, Shoji Itakura, and Shinobu Kitayama (2009) “Development of cultural strategies of attention in North American and Japanese children”. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 102, 351–359.
Dunn, Rita (1990) “Rita Dunn answers questions on learning styles”. Educational Leadership 48, 2, 15–19.
Entwistle, J. Noel (1998) “Improving teaching through research on student learning”. In University teaching: international perspectives, 73–112. James J. F. Forest, ed. New York: Garland.
Evans, Carol (2004) “Exploring the relationship between cognitive style and teaching style”. Educational Psychology 24, 509–529.
Graff, Martin (2000) “The intermediate style position”. In International perspectives on individual differences. Vol. 1: Cognitive styles, 65–78. Richard J. Riding, and Stephen G. Rayner, eds. Stamford, Conneticut: Ablex Publishing.
Guisande, M. Adelina, Carolina Tinajero, Fernando Cadaveira, and Fernanda M. Páramo (2012) “Attention and visuospatial abilities: a neuropsychological approach in field-dependent and field-independent schoolchildren”. Studia Psychologica 54, 2, 83–94.
Guisande, M. Adelina, Fernanda M. Páramo, Carolina Tinajero, and Leandro S. Almeida (2007) “Field dependence-independence cognitive style: an analysis of attentional functioning”. Psicothema 19, 572–577.
Guisande, M. Adelina, Soledad M. Rodriguez, Leandro S. Almeida, Carolina Tinajero, and Fernanda M. Páramo (2008) “Digits backward and the children's embedded figures test among school-age spanish children”. Perceptual and Motor Skills 107, 923–32.
Holmes, M. Robyn, Sharon Liden, and Lisa Shin (2013) “Children’s thinking styles, play, and academic performance”. American Journal of Play 5, 2, 219–238.
Jonassen, H. David and Barbara L. Grabowski (1993) “Field dependence and field independence (global vs. articulated style)”. In Handbook of individual differences, learning, and instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kagan, Spencer (1974) “Field dependence and conformity of rural Mexican and urban Anglo-American children”. Child Development 45, 765–771.
Kangas, Marjaana (2010) “Finnish children’s views on the ideal school and learning environment”. Learning Environments Research 13, 205–223.
Keefe, W. James (1979) “Learning style: an overview”. In Student learning styles: diagnosing and prescribing programs, 1–17. James W. Keefe, ed. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
Kitayama, Shinobu (2000) “Cultural variations in cognition: implications for aging research”. In The aging mind: opportunities in cognitive research, 218–237. Paul C. Stern, and Laura L. Cartensen, eds. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.
Kleinfeld, Judith (1994) “Learning styles and culture”. In Psychology and Culture, 151–156. Walter J. Lonner, and Roy S. Malpass, eds. Boston et al: Allyn and Bacon.
Kühnen, Ulrich, B. Hannover, U. Roeder, B. Schubert, A. A. Shah, A. Upmeyer, and S. Zakaria (2001) “Cross-cultural variations in identifying embedded figures: comparisons from the US, Germany, Russia, and Malaysia”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32, 365–371.
Mizera, Luule and Tiia Tulviste (2012) “A comparison of Estonian senior high school students’ value priorities in 2000 and 2009”. Trames 16, 2, 145–156.
Nicolaou A. Andreas and Xenia Xistouri (2011) “Field Dependence/ independence cognitive style and problem posing: an investigation with sixth grade students, educational psychology”. An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology 31, 5, 611–627.
Nisbett, E. Richard, Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi, and Ara Norenzayan (2001) “Culture and systems of thought: holistic vs. analytic cognition”. Psychological Review 108, 291–310.
Nurmi, Raimo and Raoul Üksvärav (1994) Estonia and Finland: culture and management, a conceptual presentation. (Series A–9.) Turku: Turku School of Economics and Business Administration.
Oltman, K. Philip, Evelyn Raskin, and Herman A. Witkin (2003) GEFT Test booklet. Mind Garden Inc.
Pelkonen, Antti (2008) “Reconsidering the Finnish model – information society policy and modes of governance”. Trames 12, 4, 400–420.
Randjärv, Laine (2013) “Intellectual occupation and collaborationism in the cultural life of Estonia: reflected in the epistolary communication between Tuudur Vettik and Roland Laasmäe”. Trames 17, 1, 3–34.
Saracho, N. Olivia (2000) “Enhancing young children`s home literacy experiences”. International Journal of Early Childhood Education 5, 135–141.
Tolonen, Tarja (2013) “Youth cultures, lifestyles and social class in Finnish contexts”. Young 21, 1, 55–75.
Willing, Ken (1988) Learning styles in adult migrant education. Adelaide: NCRC Research.
Witkin A. Herman (1962) Psychological differentiation: studies of development. New York: Wiley.
Witkin A. Herman (1978) Cognitive styles in personal and cultural adaptation. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Witkin A. Herman and Donald R. Goodenough (1981) Cognitive styles: essence and origin. New York: Wiley.
Witkin A. Herman and John W. Berry (1975) “Psychological differentiation in cross-cultural perspective”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 6, 1, 4–87.Witkin A. Herman, H. B. Lewis, M. Hertzman, K. Machover, P. B. Meissner, and S. Wapner (1954) Personality through perception: an experimental and clinical study. Oxford, England: Harper.
Back to Issue