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TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/tr.2014.1.06

Kaivo Thomson, Anthony Watt, Jarmo Liukkonen


The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the field dependence-independence (FDI) construct in a sample of 11 and 12 year old Estonian and Finnish elementary students. Scores on the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) obtained at the end of grade five and at the end of grade six were compared. The findings revealed that Finnish students were more field-independent (FI) than field-dependent (FD) than Estonian children at both grade 5 and grade 6. Results clearly demonstrated that the number of FI children increased for both groups from grade 5 to 6. Generally, the results were consistent with previous research in regards to both developmental and cultural aspects of FDI.


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