eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5


Full article in PDF format | DOI: 10.3176/tr.2011.3.02

Snežana Vujadinović, Dejan Šabić, Sanja Stojković, Miroljub Milinčić


The paper represents project results of a multi-year long research on the problem of refugees. First, we started from the fact that although the number of refugees in Serbia is decreasing, their social status has been bad for years and the qualitative changes are slow. We tried to answer the question relating to the changes in number and quality of collective centres. Secondly, we analyzed the relationship between refugees and domestic population. We confirmed the hypothesis that refugees from Croatia and Bosnia after years of living in Serbia hope to integrate their community into the host society. Thirdly, there is no doubt that repatriation in Croatia and Bosnia is the most acceptable solution for the majority of refugees, but it is not the realistic solution due to security issues, property security and full-time employment in the places of their origin.


Ambroso, G. (2006) The Balkans at a crossroad: Progress and challenges in finding durable solutions for refugees and displaced persons from the wars in the former Yugoslavia. (New Issues in Refugee Research. Research Paper, 133.) Geneva: United Nations High Com­missioner for Refugees.

Andersson, Roger (2003) Settlement dispersal of immigrants and refugees in Europe: policy and outcomes. (Working Paper, 03–08.) Vancouver: RIIM.

Åslund, Olof and Dan Olof Rooth (2003) Do when and where matter? Initial labour market conditions and immigrant earning. (IFAU Working Paper.) IFAU, January.

Aydemir, Abdurrahman (2003) Effects of business cycles on the labor market assimilation of immigrants. (Analytical Studies Research Paper Series.) Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Aydemir, Abdurrahman and Mikal Skuterud (2005) “Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada’s immigrant cohorts: 1966–2000”. Canadian Journal of Economics 38, 2, 641–671.

Black, Richard (2002) “Conceptions of ‘home’ and the political geography of refugee repatriation: between assumption and contested reality in Bosnia-Herzegovina”. Applied Geography 22, 123–138.

Black, Richard and Saskia Gent (2006) “Sustainable return in the post-conflict context”. Inter­national Migration 44, 3, 15–38.

Black, Richard and Saskia Gent (2004) Defining, measuring and influencing sustainable return: the case of the Balkans. (Working Paper, 7.) Sussex: University of Sussex, Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalization and Poverty.

Black, Richard, Marita Eastmond and Saskia Gent (2006) “Introduction: sustainable return in the Balkans: beyond property restitution and policy”. International Migration 44, 3, 5–13.

Cvetković, Vladimir (1998) “Refugees in Serbia and Montenegro: Causes, Status, Structure, Consequences”. In the labyrinth of crisis – preconditions for a democratic transformation in FR Yugoslavia, 465–490. Belgrade: Institute for European Studies.

Cvetkovic, Anita (2009) “The integration of immigrants in northern Sweden: a case study of the municipality of Stromsund”. International Migration 47, 1, 101–130.

Eastmond, Marita (2006) “Transnational returns and reconstruction in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina”. International Migration 44, 3, 141–164.

Ekberg, Jan (1993) The geographical and socio-economic mobility of immigrants. (In Swedish) Stockholm: Fritzes.

Fawcett, J. T. (1989) “Network, linkages and migration systems”. International Migration Review 23, 3, 671–680.

Grečić, Vladimir (1998) “Return of refugees and displaced persons in light of the Dayton accords”. In Refugees – international protection, legal status and life problems of refugees, exiled and displaced persons, “International Politics”, Službeni list SRJ, 91–110. Belgrade: Faculty of Law, Faculty of Political Science, Institute for International Politics and Industry.

Godin, Jean Francois. (2008) “Immigrant economic integration: a prospective analysis over ten years of settlement”. International Migration 46, 2, 135–165.

Gurak, Douglas T. and F. Caces (1992) “Migration networks and the shaping of migration systems”. InInternational migration systems: a global approach, 150–176. M. M. Kritz, L. Lean Lim and H. Zlotnik, eds. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hammond, L. (1999) “Examining the discourse of repatriation: towards a more proactive theory of return migration”. In The end of the refugee cycle? Refugee repatriation and reconstruction, 227–244. R. Black and K. Koser, eds. Oxford: Berghahn.

Harvey, J. (2006) “Return dynamics in Bosnia and Croatia: a comparative analysis”. International Migration 44, 3, 89–112.

Hyvönen, Heli (2008) “The strength of native ties: social networks of Finnish immigrants in Estonia”. Trames 12, 4, 421–440.

Jakovljević, Vladimir (1998) Refugees – international protection, legal status and life problems of refugees, exiled and displaced persons. Belgrade: International Politics.

Knežević, J. eds. (1992) Refugees in Serbia. Belgrade: CRRS and Red Cross of Serbia.

Kondić, K. (1997) “Children in war and exile”. In Psychology of Refuge, 37–40, Belgrade: Publish­ing House Nauka.

Küün, Elvira (2008) “The ethnic and linguistic identity of Russian-speaking young people in Estonia”. Trames 12, 2, 183–203.

Lađević, Petar and V. Stanković (2004) Refugees’ corpus in Serbia, according to the data of 2002 Census. The Ministry of Human and Minority Rights of Serbia and Montenegro.

Lukić, Vesna and Dragana Matijević (2006) “Districts in Voivodina with the highest share of refugees – influence on dynamics and structural characteristics of population”. Collection of Papers of Matica Srpska for Social Sciences 121, 103–110.

Lukić, Vesna and Vladimir Nikitović (2004) “Refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina in Serbia: a study of refugee selectivity”. International Migration 42, 4, 85–110.

Martin, Susan (2002) “Best practice options: Yugoslavia”. International Migration 40, 3, 59–69.

Matkovic, Gordana (1999) “Refugees and other war- affected persons”. In Population development in Serbia 1991–1997. M. Rašević, ed. Belgrade: Demographic Research Centre of Institute of Social Sciences.

McDonald, J. and C. Worswick (1998) “The earnings of immigrant men in Canada: job tenure, cohort, and macroeconomic conditions”. Industrial and Labour Relations Review 51, 3, 465–482.

Miller, Paul W. (1986) “Immigrant unemployment in the first year of Australian labour market activity”. Economic Record 62, 176, 82–87.

Milosavljević, Milosav (1997) “Social aspects of exile”. In Psychology of Refuge, 9–20, Belgrade: Publishing House Nauka.

Miriam, S., J. Anderson, M. Beiser, E. Mwakarimba, A. Neufeld, L. Simich, and D. Spitzer (2008) “Multicultural meanings of social support among immigrants and refugees”. International Migration 46, 3, 123–159.

Mulder, Marlene and Harvey Krahn (2005) Individual and community level determinants of support for immigration and cultural diversity in Canada. (Working Paper, 01–05.) Vancouver: PCERII.

Nikitović, Vladimir and Vesna Lukić (2009) “Could refugees have a significant impact on the future demographic change of Serbia?” International Migration 48, 1, 106–128.

Nikitović, Vladimir (2005) “Could forced immigrants be of significant impact on future demographic change of Serbia?” International scientific conference Migrations, Crises and Recent Con­flicts in the Balkans, 27–29 October. Belgrade.

Opačić, Goran (2007) Soci–economic status of refugees and displaced persons and their position on the labour market. Novi Sad: Humanitarian Centre of Novi Sad.

Petrović, D. (1997) “Exile and the elderly – adaptation at an advanced age”. In Psychology of Refuge, 49–55. Belgrade: Publishing House Nauka.

Popoola, M. (2002) “Integration, a reflection of our times”. Ajour 8, 47–65.

Portes, Alejandro (1995) “Economic sociology and the sociology of immigration: a conceptual overview”. In The economic sociology of immigration: essays on networks, ethnicity and entrepreneurship, 1–41. A. Portes, ed. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Robinson, Vaughan (2003) “Dispersal policies in the UK”. In Spreading the ‘burden’? A review of policies to disperse asylum seekers and refugees. V. Robinson, R. Andersson and S. Musterd, eds. Bristol: Policy Press.

Stevanović, Radoslav (2005) “Refugees and demographic growth of population in Serbia”. Popula­tion 44, 1–4, 43–60.

Back to Issue