ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1997
 
TRAMES cover
TRAMES. A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN 1736-7514 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-0922 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.5

INSTITUTIONALIZING THE SALAFI THOUGHTS BY THE STATE: THE SAUDI SALAFISM AS A CASE; pp. 239–255

Full article in PDF format | 10.3176/tr.2021.2.05

Author
Kardo Rached

Abstract

The Arab Spring, as a historical turning point in the Middle East, sparked an unparalleled explosion of violent jihadist groups, armed rebel groups, and transnational religious movements. These violent religious groups claim to advance the correct interpretation of Salafism according to their ideological principles and their interpretation of Islamic rule. To examine the nature, causes, and parties involved in a violent religious group’s turbulent infrastructure, one needs to have a deep understanding of Salafism’s thought and political perspective. This research, conducted using the historical-analytical method, identifies the triangular relationship between the state, its institutions, and Salafism. Our case study is the Saudi state’s role in institutionalizing Salafist doctrine and construing its political behavior. This relationship has deep historical roots, but the participating entities have changed over time from friends to foes. We highlight the analogy and mechanisms used historically by the Saudi state’s apparatus to design and organize Salafist thought and its political platform.


References

Aarts, Paul (2011) “Maintaining authoritarianism: the jerky path of political reform in Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Orient 52, 1. Available online at 
<https://dare.uva.nl/search?identifier=f7626f53-1a0f-4f56-8c0e-9b36e3d31dd0>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Abdulhay, Waleed et al. (2010) How the decision is made in the Arab regimes: a case study. Jordan – Algeria – Saudi Arabia – Sudan – Syria – Iraq – Kuwait – Lebanon – Egypt – Morocco – Yemen. Beirut: The Center for Arab Unity Studies. (In Arabic.)

Aburumman, Mohammad (2013) Salafism in the Arabian Peninsula. (In Arabic.) Available online at 
<https://www.academia.edu/15296830/>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Al-Khader, Abdul Aziz (2010) Saudi Arabia, the biography of a state and a society. Beirut: Arab Network for Research and Publishing. (In Arabic.)

Al-NaqeebKhaldoun Hassan (2014) Society and state in the Gulf and Arab Peninsula: a different perspective. London: Routledge.

Alsaif, Tawfiq (2013) “Relationship between state and religion in Saudi Arabia: the role of Wahabism in governance”. Contemporary Arab Affairs 6, 3, 376–403.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2013.822721

al-Saif, Tawfiq (2014) “Political Islam in Saudi Arabia: recent trends and future prospects”. Journal Contemporary Arab Affairs 7, 3, 398–420.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17550912.2014.936122

Alshamsi, Mansoor Jassem (2012) Islam and political reform in Saudi Arabia: the quest for political change and reform. London: Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203961124

Brachman, Jarret M. (2008) Global Jihadism: theory and practice. London: Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203895054

Gaglioti, Angelo Roberto (2013) The liberal and radical protests in mid-90s Saudi Arabia politics. London: The Research Centre for the Mediterranean Relations. Available online at 
<http://www.medalics.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/TR-4-The-liberal-and-radical-protests-in-mid-90s-Saudi-Arabia-politics.pdf>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Gharaibeh, Ibrahim (2004) The two issues Salafi and Shiite in Saudi Arabia. (In Arabic.) Available online at 
<https://www.aljazeera.net/opinions/2004/10/3/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A3%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%84%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Hafez, Mohammed M. (2008) “Jihad after Iraq: lessons from the Arab Afghans”. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 32, 2, 73–94.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100802639600

Hegghammer, Thomas (2011) Jihad in Saudi Arabia: violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979. London: Cambridge University Press. 
https://doi.org/10.3917/pe.111.0198

Herb, Michael (1991) All in the family: absolutism, revolution, and democracy in the Middle Eastern monarchies. (SUNY Series in Middle Eastern Studies.) Albany: State University of New York Press.

Hertog, Steffen (2004) “Building the body politic: emerging corporatism in Saudi Arabia”. Arabian Humanities
https://doi.org/10.4000/cy.187

Hourani, Albert (1992) A history of the Arab peoples. New York: Warner Books.

Insight & Analysis (2012) Egypt’s Islamists: a growing divide. The Wilson Center. Available online at 
<https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/egypts-islamists-growing-divide>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Jehl, Douglas (2001) “A nation challenged: a critic; after prison, a Saudi Sheik tempers his words”. The New York Times, December 27. Available online at 
<https://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/27/world/a-nation-challenged-a-critic-after-prison-a-saudi-sheik-tempers-his-words.html>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Jones, Toby Craig (2005) “The clerics, the Sahwa and the Saudi state”. Strategic Insights 4, 3. Available online at 
<https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=453693>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Khatab, Sayed (2011) ‘Wahhabism’. Understanding Islamic fundamentalism: the theological and ideological basis. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
https://doi.org/10.5743/cairo/9789774164996.001.0001

Kostiner, Joseph (1996) “State, Islam and opposition in Saudi Arabia: the post-desert storm phase”. Terrorism and Political Violence 8, 2, 75–89. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/09546559608427347

Lacroix, Stéphane (2011) Awakening Islam: the politics of religious dissent in contemporary Saudi Arabia. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674061071

Livingstone, David (2013) Black terror white soldiers: Islam, Fascism & the New Age. S.l.: Sabilillah Publications.

Martorell, Benjamin E. (2012) Oil, politics, society and the state in the Middle East: enduring authoritarianism in Iran and Saudi Arabia. Master Thesis. Chicago, Illinois: DePaul University, College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences.

Meijer, Roel (2009) Global Salafism: Islam’s new religious movement. London: Oxford University Press. 

Nehme, Michel G. (1994) “Saudi Arabia 1950-80: Between Nationalism and religion”. Middle Eastern Studies 30, 4, 930–943.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00263209408701030

Niblock, Tim (2015)  State, society and economy in Saudi Arabia. London: Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315727455

Olsson, Susanne (2017) “Shia as internal others: a Salafi rejection of the ‘rejecters’”. Journal Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 28, 4, 409–430.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2017.1318545

Qandil, Mohamed Mokhtar (2018) “The Muslim Brotherhood and Saudi Arabia: from then to now”. Fikra Forum. Available online at 
<https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/the-muslim-brotherhood-and-saudi-arabia-from-then-to-now>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Rakowski, Stephen (2017) How the 1979 Siege of Mecca haunts the House of Saud. Available online at 
<https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/how-1979-siege-mecca-haunts-house-saud>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Shahrour, Izzat (2013) Chinese decision-making ... its centers and development (in Arabic) Available online at 
<https://studies.aljazeera.net/ar/issues/2013/11/201311137631298783.html>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.

Sterner, Michael (1999) “Saudi Arabia and the politics of dissent, by Mamoun Fandy”. Middle East Policy 6, 4, 200.

Wictorowicz, Quintan (2006) “Anatomy of the Salafi Movement”. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, 3, 207–239.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100500497004

Wilson, Peter W. and Douglas F. Graham (1994) Saudi Arabia: the coming storm. London: Routledge.

Wilson, Rodney (2012) Economic development in the Middle East. London: Routledge. 
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203095782

Yan, Xing (2015) “Analysis of political decision-making and its influencing factors”. Cross-Cultural Communication 11, 3, 42–46.

Zaccara, Luciano (2019) “Kuwait Islamists: from institutionalized to informal opposition”. International Studies Journal 15, 4, 75–98.

Zaher, Moutaz (2018) “The armed Madkhali movement. Ruya for Research and Studies”. (In Arabic.) Available online at 
<https://ruyaa.cc/Page/4814/>. Accessed on 28.04.2021.


Back to Issue