ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
The Yearbook of the Estonian Mother Tongue Society cover
The Yearbook of the Estonian Mother Tongue Society
Põhikooli I ja II astme õpilased arvutiga kirjutajatena: kas pikemaaegsem arvuti kasutamise kogemus tagab paremad tulemused tekstiloomes?; pp. 310–326
PDF | 10.3176/esa66.13

Authors
Anne Uusen, Helin Puksand
Abstract

1st and 2nd stage students of basic school as writers by computer: does a longer-term computer use experience guarantee better results in text creation?

The Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy 2020 (HTM 2014) stipulates, among other things, that the Estonian education system will switch to e-assessment at all school levels. It is also unavoidable to assess text creation skills in language and literature. The article provides an overview of the general results of students’ computer-written texts based on the text creation part of the primary school (stage I and II) e-tests, tested in October 2019. A previous quick analysis of the survey revealed that primary school students had fewer experiences using word processing programs at school. A literature review shows that this can most likely be an obstacle to achieving good results in the text creation part of e-tests. The analysis results described in this article showed that lower grade students performed worse on the task of writing an e-mail. However, there were no differences in the writing of narrative texts. The most significant differences were in the written communication skills assessed in the e-mails; the other indicators were relatively similar. There were also considerable differences in the frequency of using digital equipment at school in general and in mother tongue lessons. Low use of digital tools also explains the overall relatively low averages in text creation outcomes. However, it does not necessarily support the assumption made about lower word processing skills of lower-stage students. The research results lead to the conclusion that if we want to assess students’ writing skills based on computer-written texts, it is necessary to consider how to ensure that all students have achieved sufficient computer skills so as not to negatively affect text creation.

References


Bereiter, Carl, Marlene Scardamalia 2013. The Psychology of Written Composition. New York, London: Routledge. 
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203812310

Berninger, Virginia, William D. Winn 2006. Implications of advancements in brain research and technology for writing development, writing instruction, and educational evolution. – Handbook of Writing Research. Ed. by Charles A. MacArthur, Steve Graham, Jill Fitzgerald. New York: Guilford Press, 96–114.

Bright, Robin 1995. Writing Instruction in the Intermediate Grades: What Is Said, What Is Done, What Is Understood. Newark: IRA Publications.

Dahl, Karin L., Nancy Farnan 2000. Childrens’s Writing: Perspectives from Research. Newark: IRA.

Ericsson, Karl, Ralf T. Krampe, Clemens Tesch-Roemer 1993. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. – Psychological Review 100 (3), 363–406. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-295X.100.3.363

Goldberg, Amie, Michael Russell, Abigail Cook 2003. The effect of computers on student writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992 to 2002. – Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment 2 (1), 3–51.

Graham, Steve, Virginia Berninger, Robert D. Abbott, Silvia P. Abbott, Dianne Whitaker 1997. Role of mechanics in composing of elementary school students: A new methodological approach. – Journal of Educational Psychology 89 (1), 170–182. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.89.1.170

Graham, Steve, Debra McKeown, Sharlene Kiuhara, Karen R. Harris 2012. A meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades. – Journal of Educational Psychology 104 (4), 879–896. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029185

Harris, Theodore L., Richard E. Hodges 1995. The Literacy Dictionary. The Vocabulary of Reading and Writing. Newark: IRA.

Hawisher, Gail E. 1988. Research update: Writing and word processing. – Computer and Composition 5 (2), 7–27. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/8755-4615(88)80002-1

Hawisher, Gail E. 1989. Research and recommendations for computers and compositions. – Critical Perspectives on Computers and Composition Instructions. Ed. by Gail E. Hawisher & Cynthia L. Selfe. New York: Teachers College Press, 44–69.

Hennings, Dorothy Grant 2000. Communication in Action: Teaching Literature-Based Language Arts. 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Holliway, David R., Deborah McCutchen 2004. Audience perspective in young writers’ composing and revising. – Revision Cognitive and Instructional Processes. Ed. by Linda Allal, Lucile Chanquoy, Pierre Largy. (= Studies in Writing 13.) Boston, Dordrecht, New York: Springer, 87–101. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1048-1_6

HTM 2014 = Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium 2014. Eesti elukestva õppe strateegia 2020. https://www.hm.ee/sites/default/files/strateegia2020.pdf  (25.10.2020).

Kellogg, Ronald T. 2008. Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. – Journal of Writing Research 1 (1), 1–26. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2008.01.01.1

Kerge, Krista, Hille Pajupuu, Pilvi Alp, Halliki Põlda, Anne Uusen 2014. Towards sophisticated writing. – Proceedings of the Tallinn University Institute of Estonian Language and Culture 16. Ed. by Krista Kerge. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus, 103−115.

Kozma, Robert B. 1991. Computer-based writing tools and the cognitive needs of novice writers. – Computers and Composition 8 (2), 31–45. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/8755-4615(91)80046-G

Lee, Kang, Anette Karmiloff-Smith 1996. The development of external symbol systems: The child as a notator. – Perceptual and Cognitive Development. Ed. by Rochel Gelman, Terry Kit-Fong Au. London: Academic Press, 185–211. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012279660-9%2F50024-5

Mogey, Nora, John Cowan, Jessie Paterson, Mike Purcell 2012. Students’ choices between typing and handwriting in examinations. – Active Learning in Higher Education 13 (2), 117–128. 
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1469787412441297

Myhill, Debra, Susan Jones 2007. More than just error corrections: Students’ perspectives on their revision processes during writing. – Written Communication 24 (4), 323–343. 
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0741088307305976

Nippold, Marilyn A. 2004. Research on later language development: International perspectives. – Language Development Across Childhood and Adolescence. Ed. by Ruth A. Berman. (= Trends in Language Acquisition 3.) Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1–8. 
https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.3.04nip

Poole, Dawn M., Monique K. Preciado 2016. Touch typing instruction: Elementary teachers’ beliefs and practices. – Computers & Education 102, 1–14. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.06.008

PRÕK 2011 = Põhikooli riiklik õppekava. Riigi Teataja, RT I 14.01.2011, 1. 
https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/114022018008 (10.11.2020).

Pugi, Jane 2014. Arvutiga ja käsitsi kirjutatud tekstide võrdlus 5. klassides. Magistritöö. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool.

Puksand, Helin, Anne Uusen 2020. Põhikooli I astme õpilaste valmisolek ja suutlikkus teha emakeele e-tasemetööd. – Emakeele Seltsi aastaraamat 65. Peatoim. Mati Erelt. Emakeele Selts. Tallinn: EKSA, 192−205. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/esa65.08

Ravid, Dorit, Liliana Tolchinsky 2002. Developing linguistic literacy: A comprehensive model. – Journal of Child Language 29 (2), 417–447. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305000902005111

Riley, Jeni, David Reedy 2000. Developing Writing for Different Purposes: Teaching about Genre in the Early Years. London: SAGE Publications. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219515

Salomon, Gavriel, Ely Kosminsky, Merav Asaf 2003. Computers and writing. – Handbook of Children’s Literacy. Ed. by Terezinha Nunes, Peter Bryant. London: Kluwer, 409–442.

Sarmavuori, Katri 2003. Alkuaskelet äidinkieleen ja kirjallisuuteen. Helsinki: Valopaino.

Tichenor, Stuart 1998. Writing and computer skills: Students need more time! – Opinion Papers. Oklahoma State University.

Uusen, Anne 2006. Põhikooli I ja II astme õpilaste kirjutamisoskus. (= Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid 19.) Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus.

Van Waes, Luuk, Peter J. Schellens 2003. Writing profiles: The effect of the writing mode on pausing and revision patterns of experienced writers. – Journal of Pragmatics 35 (6), 829–853. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00121-2

Van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn, Mariëtte Tesselhof, Henny van der Meijden 2019. Touch‐typing for better spelling and narrative‐writing skills on the computer. – Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 35 (1), 143–152. 
https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12323

Back to Issue