Number 4 2005

Karl Pajusalu, Estonian Grammars by Ferdinand Johann Wiedemann
Abstract. The article compares the academic Estonian grammars by Ferdinand Johann Wiedemann, a great figure in the 19th-century Estonian linguistics. More precisely, the article deals with Wiedemann's grammar of the Võru dialect of South Estonian "Versuch ueber den Werroehstnischen Dialekt" (1864) and his "Grammatik der Ehstnischen Sprache" (1875) — a major Estonian grammar focusing on the central dialect of North Estonian but also treating other dialects. First, the article characterizes F. J. Wiedemann's research methods and starting points. F. J. Wiedemann's research on Estonian grammar grew out of polemics with the Estonian grammar by Eduard Ahrens, especially its second edition published in 1853. F. J. Wiedemann stressed some features not covered by E. Ahrens' grammar of the North Estonian coastal dialect, for example, the opposition of three phonological quantities. F. J. Wiedemann applied the model of grammar first used in his grammar of the Võru dialect to his comprehensive grammar of the Estonian language. The grammars by F. J. Wiedemann present many more historical features of the Estonian language than the ones to be found in contemporary Standard Estonian. That is why F. J. Wiedemann's works continue to be an important source for the study of the historical development of the Finnic languages.

Vilja Oja, Wie der Wegerich in den ostseefinnischen Sprachen zu seinem Namen kam
Abstract. The plantain (Plantago) has many names in Finnic languages. Names motivated by 'road' as the habitat of the plant can be found not only in every Finnic language, but also in most of their more distant relatives. A number of names can be associated with the use of the plant in folk medicine. It is believed that the derivatives of and compounds with the noun rauta 'iron' used in Finnish dialects also belong here. Other aspects, such as, e.g. the plant's appearance or its use in games, have motivated names with but a limited area of distribution. In the rest of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in Europe, many more names can be associated with the appearance of the plant, whereas its healing qualities are reflected much more seldom than in the Finnic languages.

Niina Aasmäe, Duration Variability in Erzya: Stressed and Unstressed Syllable Nuclei in Idiolects
Abstract. Recordings of spontaneous speech and scripted reading were analyzed to test the hypothesis that there is stress-related duration variability among the dialects of Erzya. This article reports the results of measurements on the durational relations between stressed and unstressed syllable nuclei in disyllabic words produced by 40 speakers. The data allowed distinguishing four groups of idiolects with regard to the durational characteristics of the adjacent syllable nuclei. In the group of idiolects characterized by the use of full vowels within a word, the duration of the syllable nuclei tended to be equal. The analysis of variance showed that differences between the duration of stressed and unstressed syllable nuclei were statistically not significant. In three groups of idiolects that are characterized by the occurrence of reduction in unstressed syllables, vowels under stress were found to be longer than in unstressed syllables; variance in the duration of the syllable nuclei for these groups was significant. Hence, in the types of idiolects that have reduction, duration is likely to be used as a correlate of stress. Cross-idiolect data exhibited a complexity of interrelationship between some of the varieties referred to different groups. Differences in the duration ratios between the syllable nuclei for separate idiolects were not statistically significant, which implies that there are borderline cases among the groups. The measurements of spontaneous speech and script reading produced analogous results. In the course of analysis, some of the segmental effects upon the durational relations between the syllable nuclei in the varieties were noted.

Nadežda Ljukina, Istorija izutšenija besermjanskogo naretšija
Nadežda L j u k i n a, Über die Erforschung des bessermänischen Dialekts
Abstract. According to different sources and a few studies the first texts written in the dialect go back as far as the late 18th century. The paper offers a linguistic viewpoint on the history of its investigation, without emphasizing its origin. The focus is laid on the characteristic features of the dialect.


Helmi Neetar, Lembit Vaba — 60

I. V. Tarakanov, A. F. Šutov, Jubilej M. G. Atamanova

D. V. C y g a n k i n, Pamjat', zapetšatlennaja v slove. Slovar' geografitšeskich nazvanij Respubliki Mordovija, Saransk 2005. Rets. R. N. Buzakova

J. A. C y p a n o v, Pritšastie v komi jazyke. Istorija, semantika, distributsija, Jekaterinburg 1997; J. A. C y p a n o v, Grammatitšeskaja kategorija zaloga, Syktyvkar 2002. Rets. A. I. Kuznecova

V. I. L e š k i n a, Opredelenie kak odin iz vtorostepennych tšlenov predloženija v erzjanskom jazyke. Dissertatsija na soiskanie utšenoj stepeni kandidata filologitšeskich nauk, Saransk 2004. Rets. D. V. Cygankin

J. A. C y p a n o v, Grammatitšeskie kategorii glagola v komi jazyke. Dissertatsija na soiskanie utšenoj stepeni doktora filologitšeskich nauk, Joškar-Ola 2003. Rets. Gennadij Tužarov

Paul Alvre, In memoriam Eduard Vääri. 26. Juni 1926 — 17. Mai 2005

Auf der Titelseite: Gedenkstein für Paul Ariste in seinem Geburtsort Rääbise, Gemeinde Torma, im Landkreis Jõgevamaa, Estland (Foto Piret Norvik, 2005).