Number 1 2005
T.-R. V., Paul Ariste 100
Tiit-Rein Viitso, Some Comments about Paul Ariste's Doctoral Dissertation on Phonetics of Hiiumaa Estonian Dialects
Abstract. The doctoral dissertation by Paul Ariste, defended in 1939, is almost forgotten outside Estonia and even not listed in "Bibligraphia Studiorum Uralicorum 1917—1987". Still it contains extremely valuable data and discussion about the sound system of the now almost leveled old dialects of the Estonian island Hiiumaa. In several points the data and Ariste's observations have changed and still can change older views on the historical phonetics/phonology of Finnic dialects. The article focuses on (1) developments and lack of õ [e̮], (2) ü in words with the original back vocalism, (3) breaking of mid vowels, (4) reduction and centralization, (5) the rise of Estonian distinctive quantities, (6) the so-called ternary oppositions.
Mati Erelt, Source-Marking Resultatives in Estonian
Abstract. Estonian has two types of resultative clauses — goal-marking (GM) and source-marking (SM) resultative clauses. Both can be either intransitive or transitive. A GM-clause reveals the presence of the referent of the subject or the object before the beginning of the change, which is not the case for an SM-clause. The same verbs are used in both constructions, which allows treating the opposition in these constructions as a diathetic one.
Silvi Vare, Zur deverbalen substantivischen Konversion im Estnischen
Abstract. In Estonian, conversion as a change in word class without introducing a derivational suffix applies, first and foremost, to mutual convertibility of verbs and nouns, e.g. rohi 'grass' > rohi/ma 'to weed' (-ma is an infinitive marker) or ravi/ma 'to cure' > ravi 'treatment'. The article provides a brief survey of verb-to-noun conversion, done mainly on the basis of formal characteristics. The focus lies on the propensity for conversion as manifested in verbs with different structures (simple bases, derivatives, compounds), thus specifying the principal phonological and morphological prerequisites that determine the possibility and productivity of verb-to-noun conversion. It appears that in a general case the base of conversion is a simple base, while a derivative can be converted only on certain specific conditions. At that, the grammatical peculiarities of Estonian as a Finno-Ugric language engender some interpretational issues, while the synchronic vs. diachronic aspects should also be taken into account. As morphonological alternation of word stems has a vital role in both inflection and derivation it can certainly not be overlooked in conversion. Thus Estonian conversion does not only involve fully identical stems, but also phonetic variance of a definite kind. The study is synchronic, based on the latest edition of the Estonian orthological dictionary (ÕS 1999).
V. S. Čurakov, Proishoždenie nazvanij udmurtskich rodov
V. S. Č u r a k o v, The Origin of the Names of the Udmurt Clans
Abstract. A hypothesis according to which the names of the Udmurt "matriarchal" (sic!) clans (voršud) go back to the names of their totems is based on incorrect interpretation of the ethnographic sources. One of the main mistakes of so-called voršud theory is the replacement the term vyžy 'clan' by the term voršud. Actually the voršud or šudvord's' is a sacred patron of the patrilineal clan vyžy. Consequently, the term voršud name can not be used in meaning 'clan name'. The members of the vyžy thought themselves as descended from a common male ancestor whose name was used by them as a clan nickname. In other words, the author of present article regards that the names of the old Udmurt clans were formed in accordance with the following anthroponimic model: the name of male ancestor + the old Permic suffix of collective plural -a , which had the same function as, for example, the German -ing/-ung (like in Karoling) or the Slav -itši/-ovitši (like in Rjurikovitši). Instances: Bija < Bij 'Prince' + -a, Durga < Dureg 'Smith' + -a, Jubera < Juber 'Starling' + -a, Šudja < Šudej 'Happy' + -a, etc.
Georgij Kert, Slovo ob utšitele
M. V. Mosin, D. V. Cygankin, Paul Ariste. Pamjati utšitelja
Jevgenij Cypanov, Rol' Paulja Ariste v razvitii komi jazykoznanija
M. G. Atamanov, Akademik Paul Ariste i udmurtskoe jazykoznanie
P. N. Lizanec, Paul Ariste i razvitie finno-ugorskogo i vengerskogo jazykoznanija v Užgorodskom natsional'nom universitete
V. K. K e l' m a k o v, Dialektnaja i istoritšeskaja fonetika udmurtskogo jazyka 1, Iževsk, Izdatel'skij dom "Udmurtskij universitet", 2003. Rets. G. A. Nekrasova
Paul Alvre, In memoriam Alo Raun
Auf der Titelseite: Prof. Paul Ariste mit seinen Aspiranten (1952)