eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Proceeding cover
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2021): 1.024
Use case of Autonomous Vehicle shuttle and passenger acceptance analysis; pp. 429–435
PDF | 10.3176/proc.2021.4.09

Krister Kalda, Raivo Sell, Ralf-Martin Soe

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are moving from test areas to the streets, which is one of the key components of smart cities and the future of mobility as a service (MaaS). In 2020, two AV services were operated in Tallinn. This paper focuses on one of these services, and its set-up process. The pilot project took place in Ülemiste City, a tech park with 10 000 people working daily in the area, and it connected the offices with the airport and a shopping centre. The autonomous shuttle iseAuto, created first at TalTech, was used for the service (on streets with heavy traffic, including some complex crossings). Our findings associated with the Ülemiste experiment are presented in the context of legal requirements set upon autonomous vehicles to be street legal. Some events that occurred during the operation (including an accident) are addressed and a summary of the feedback from clients is presented. Further studies should focus on the extended concept of smart cities with a roadmap for the nearest future.


1. On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) committee. Taxon­omy and definitions for terms related to driving automation systems for on-road motor vehicles.

2. Sell, R., Leier, M., Rassõlkin, A. and Ernits, J. Self-driving car ISEAUTO for research and education. In Proceedings of the 2018 19th International Conference on Research and Education in Mechatronics (REM)Delft, Netherlands, June 7–8, 2018. IEEE, 111–116.

3. Rassõlkin, A., Sell, R. and Leier, M. Development case study of the first estonian self-driving car, iseauto. Electr. Control Commun. Eng., 2018, 14(1), 81–88.

4. Mäkinen, S., Kantala, T., Haapamäki, T., Olin, J. and Åman Kyyrö, M. User Experience and Impact on Public Transport – Sohjoa Baltic. The Roadmap to Automated Electric Shuttles in Public Transport. Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, 2020.

5. FABULOS (Future Automated Bus Urban Operation Systems) project. (accessed 2020-01-10). 

6. Soe, R.-M. and Müür, J. Mobility acceptance factors of an automated shuttle bus last-mile service. Sustainability, 2020, 12(13), 5469.

7. Norton, B. E. Autonomous shuttles in Santa Fe Springs. California Polytechnic State University, 2020.

8. Hagenzieker, M. P., Boersma, R., Velasco, J. P. N., Öztürker, M., Zubin, I. and Heikoop, D. Automated buses in Europe: an inventory of pilots, 2020.

9. Werdin, S. The roadmap to automated electric shuttles in public transport – the legal framework. Sohjoa Baltic, 2018.

10. Wang, R., Sell, R., Rassolkin, A., Otto, T. and Malayjerdi, E. Intelligent functions development on autonomous electric vehicle platform. J. Mach. Eng., 2020, 20(2), 114–125.

Back to Issue