Experimental analysis of end mill axis inclination and its influence on 3D areal surface texture parameters; pp 194–201Full article in PDF format
The surface quality of machined parts depends highly on the surface texture that reflects the marks of the tool during the cutting process. The traditional theoretical approach indicates that these marks are related to the cutting parameters (e.g. cutting speed, feed, depths of cut), the machining type, the part material, the tool, etc. The influence of these factors has been widely studied by researchers and they have been considered in milling process models proposed to predict the final surface texture.
Nevertheless, if an accurate prediction is desired, these milling models must include different geometrical errors influencing the cutting edges path on the part. In this paper, we present the results of a study showing the influence of real mill-axis inclination on 3D surface texture. Therefore, experiments with simple, end mill tool operation, with constant cutting parameters and four different cutting directions (the directions that we labelled as North, South, East, and West) in accordance with the machine coordinate system were performed. Using optical 3D areal surface texture measurement techniques with the Bruker Contour device, we obtained areal surface texture parameters for analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis and one-way ANOVA analysis were performed to detect the factor significances and their influence on 3D areal surface texture parameters. The results from ANOVA and graphical analysis clearly identified tool-axis inclination in the South and West directions. If a relationship between tool-axis inclination and surface texture parameters can be demonstrated, this calculation can be included in the model of 3D surface texture formation. Improving the mathematical model with all possible errors occurring in high speed machining operations helps to obtain more precise texture parameter Sz results for simple end mill operation. The model is suitable for complicated machining operations with ball end mill tools.
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