Preparation and wear behaviour of steel turning tools surfaced using the submerged arc welding technique; pp. 117–122Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/proc.2016.2.01
Nowadays metal machining industry has to meet economically the challenges of the surface quality and efficiency of the machined parts during turning and other metal removing processes. Turning is the process of machining ferrous metals with a hardness value more than 45 HRC in order to obtain the final product or billet. In the present work, an attempt has been made to prepare a turning tool by surfacing a shank billet made of plain carbon steel using the submerged arc welding technique, with spreading WC-8%Co powder on the surface of the base metal or inserting different amounts of graphite into the flux and afterwards fusing by a metal arc. The flux AMS1 (more than 50% SiO2 and MnO) has a multifunctional purpose in welding. It serves not only to prevent the molten metal from the surrounding air but also to transmit additional elements to the weld during welding. The presumable chemical composition of surfaced tools was ensured by adding chemical elements which form hard carbides, and are high-temperature resistant. The focus was on graphite, tungsten (W), and cobalt (Co) systems in order to obtain layers of high wear resistance. The prepared and blended metal powder was used in two different ways: (1) spread on the surface of the plain carbon steel shank under the flux and (2) inserted into the flux. The obtained results were compared with a commercial turning tool made of high-speed tool steel. The wear resistance of surfaced experimental turning tools showed better wear performance than the standard tool. The wear crater area of the experimental tool measured after the wear test was 0.38 mm2, while the wear of the standard tool exceeded 0.45 mm2; the wear resistance of the experimental turning tool was about 15% higher.
1. Ambroza, P., Bendikiene, R., and Kavaliauskiene, L. Submerged arc surfacing of structural steel using metals powder added to flux. In Proceedings of the 5th IASME/WSEAS International Conference on Heat Transfer, Thermal Engineering and Environment Greece, 2007, 184–187.
2. Kirchgaßner, M., Badisch, E., and Franek, F. Behaviour of iron-based hardfacing alloys under abrasion and impact. Wear, 2008, 265, 772–779.
3. Ren, X. J., James, R. D., Brookes, E. J., and Wang, L. Machining of high chromium hardfacing materials. Mat. Proc. Techn., 2001, 115, 423–429.
4. Martinez, M., Massetti, A., and Svoboda, H. Effect of pin geometry on the wear behavior of weld-deposited hardfacing. Procedia Mater. Sci., 2012, 1, 305–312.
5. Leech, P. E., Li, X. S., and Alam, N. Comparison of abrasive wear of a complex high alloy hardfacing deposit and WC-Ni based metal matrix composite. Wear, 2012, 294–295, 380–386.
6. Coronado, J. J., Caicedo, H. F., and Gómez, A. L. The effects of welding processes on abrasive wear resistance for hardfacing deposits. Trib. Int., 2009, 42, 745–749.
7. Badisch, E. and Kirchgaßner, M. Influence of welding parameters on microstructure and wear behaviour of a typical NiCrBSi hardfacing alloy reinforced with tungsten carbide. Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202, 6016–6022.
8. Jankauskas, V., Antonov, M., Varnauskas, V., Skirkus, R., and Goljandin, D. Effect of WC grain size and content on low stress abrasive wear of manual arc welded hardfacings with low-carbon or stainless steel matrix. Wear, 2015, 328–329, 378–390.
9. Çalişkan, H., Kurbanoğlu, C., Panjan, P., Čekada, M., and Kramar, D. Wear behavior and cutting performance of nanostructured hard coatings on cemented carbide cutting tools in hard milling. Trib. Int., 2013, 62, 215–222.
10. Mansori, M. E. and Nouari, M. Dry machinability of nickel-based weld-hardfacing layers for hot tooling. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 2007, 47, 1715–1727.
11. Ren, W. J., Yang, Q. X., James, R. D., and Wang, L. Cutting temperatures in hard turning chromium hardfacings with PCBN tooling. J. Mat. Proc. Techn., 2004, 147, 38–44.
12. Kavaliauskiene, L. Investigation of Wear Resistant Layers Produced by Overlaying Welding of Metals and Alloys Powders. PhD Thesis, Kaunas University of Technology, Technologija, 2006.13. Chinchanikar, S. and Choudhury, S. K. Hard turning using HiPIMS-coated carbide tools: wear behavior under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). Measurement, 2014, 55, 536–548.
Back to Issue