Modification of the epoxy resin with epoxide and ester group containing oligomers and compounds; pp. 71–76Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/proc.2015.1S.01
Epoxy toluene oligomers (ETO) are very important substances due to effective functional groups in their structure and they are especially used as polymer additives that have been synthesized from toluene and epichlorhydrin. Flame-retardant properties of the neat epoxy resin (ER), ETO, and ETO/ER blend thermoset were evaluated by UL94 vertical flammability test. The chlorine atoms in ETO increase the stability of the polymer material against burning. For the synthesis other polymers, first the waste product of the industrial vegetable oil refinement acid oil was transformed into the glycidyl ester (FAGE). Unsaturated oligo(ether-ester) (OEE) was prepared by ring-opening polymerization of the propylene oxide (PO) with FAGE in the presence of cationic catalyst BF3·O(C2H5)2. Its chemical structure was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy. These polymers, isoamyl methacrylate (AMA) and 1,2-epoxy-hexane-5-en (EH) were used as modifiers in the DGEBA-type epoxy resin. The effects of the modifier structure and amount on the mechanical properties of epoxy were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the modified samples were found higher than those of the neat epoxy resin.
1. May, C. A. and Tanaka, G. Y. Epoxy Resin Chemistry and Technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973.
2. Bauer, R. S. Epoxy Resin Chemistry. Adv. Chem. Ser. 114, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1979.
3. Jin, F.-L. and Park, S.-J. Impact-strength improvement of epoxy resins reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct., 2008, 478, 402–405.
4. Miyagawa, H., Mohanty, A. K., Misra, M., and Drzal, L. T. Thermo-physical and impact properties of epoxy containing epoxidized linseed oil. Macromol. Mater. Eng., 2004, 289, 636–641.
5. Chen, Z.-K., Yang, G., Yang, J.-P., Fu, Sh.-Y., Ye, L., and Huang, Y.-G. Simultaneously increasing cryogenic strength, ductility and impact resistance of epoxy resins modified by n-butyl glycidyl ether. Polymer, 2009, 50, 1316–1323.
6. Yang, G., Fu, Sh.-Y., and Yang, J.-P. Preparation and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins with flexible diamines. Polymer, 2007, 48, 302–310.
7. Barcia, F. L., Amaral, T. P., and Soares, B. G. Synthesis and properties of epoxy resinmodified with epoxy-terminated liquid polybutadiene. Polymer, 2003, 44, 5811–5819.
8. Ahmetli, G., Deveci, H., Soydal, U., Pistil Gurler, S., and Altun, A. Epoxy resin/polymer blends: improvement of thermal and mechanical properties. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2012, 125, 38–45.
9. Yazicigil, Z. and Ahmetli, G. Synthesis of the fatty acid compounds obtained from sunflower oil refinig products. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2008, 108, 541–547.
10. Yazıcıgil, Z., Ahmetli, G., Kara, H., and Kocak, A. Investigation of synthesis of copolymers from the waste products of industrial oil refinement having adhesion properties and strength to the thermal destruction. J. Polym. Environ., 2006, 14, 353–357.
11. Ahmetli, G., Deveci, H., Soydal, U., Seker, A., and Kurbanli, R. Corrosion and termal characterization of styrene based copolymers. Progr. Org. Coat., 2012, 75, 97–105.
12. Krause, A., Lange, A., and Ezrin, M. Plastics Analysis Guide, Chemical and Instrumental Methods. Harver, New York, 1983.
13. Brown, R. P. Physical Testing of Rubbers. Applied Science, London, 1979.
14. Brady, J. E., Dürig, T., and Shang, S. In Theories and Techniques in the Characterization of Drug Substances and Excipients (Qui, Y., ed.). Chapter 9. Academic Press, New York, 2008.
15. Sethuraman, S., Nair, L. S., El-Amin, S., Nguyen, M.-T., Singh, A., Krogman, N. et al. Mechanical properties and osteocompatibility of novel biodegradable alamine based polyphosphazenes: side group effects. Acta Biomater., 2010, 6, 1931–1937.
16. Beer, F. P., Johnston, E. R., DeWolf, J. T., and Mazurek, D. Mechanics of Materials, 5th edn. McGraw Hill, New York, 2009.
17. Billmeyer, F. W. Textbook of Polymer Science, 3rd edn. Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984.
18. Maiti, S., Banerjee, P., Purakayastha, S., and Ghosh, B. Silicon-doped carbon semiconductor from rice husk char. Mater. Chem. Phys., 2008, 109, 169–173.
19. Troitzsch, T. Plastics Flammability Handbook. Hanser Publications, Germany, 2004.
20. Kurbanova, R. A., Ragimov, A. V., and Bektasi, N. R. Patent USSR, G84044, 1979.
21. Van-Krevelen, D. W. and Hoftyzer, P. J. Properties of Polymers, Their Estimation and Correlation with Chemical Structure (2nd edn). Elsevier, New York, 1976.
22. Ghaemy, M., Rahpaima, G., and Behmadi, H. Effect of triphenylphosphine on the cure reaction and thermal stability of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A-based epoxy resin. Iran. Polym. J., 2008, 17, 875–885.
Back to Issue