eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Proceeding cover
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 1.045
Measurements of persistent organic pollutants in Estonian ambient air (1990–2013); pp. 184–199
PDF | doi: 10.3176/proc.2015.2.07

Ott Roots, Tiit Lukki, Petra Přibylová, Jana Borůvková, Petr Kukučka, Ondřej Audy, Jiří Kalina, Jana Klánová, Ivan Holoubek, Andrew Sweetman, Ole Schleicher

Central and Eastern Europe is a region that is expected to need more data on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the ambient air in the future. Passive air sampling is a cheap screening method for comparison of contamination on various sites or for verification of information obtained by active samplers. Passive air samplers are sensitive enough to mirror even small-scale differences, which makes them capable of monitoring spatial, seasonal, and temporal variations. Different passive air samplers were employed between 1990 and 2013 from time to time in six Estonian air monitoring stations. The concentrations of PCB and its congeners, HCB, PeCB, HCH, and DDT (the same for PBDE, PCN, PCDD/F) in Estonian ambient air were very low, but they allow tracking transboundary air pollution. The main aim of this article is analysis of changes in the ambient air pollution in Estonia during a long period of time (1990–2013). Also, selection of Lahemaa background station for monitoring POPs in the European area is addressed.


Agrell, G., Larsson, P., Okla, L., Bremle, G., Johansson, N., Klavins, M., Roots, O., and Zelechowska, A. 2001. Atmospheric and river input of PCBs, DDTs and HCHs to the Baltic Sea. In A System Analysis of the Baltic Sea (Wulff, F., Rahm, L., and Larsson, P., eds), pp. 149–175. Ecological Studies, 148. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Bartoš, T., Čupr, P., Klánová, J., and Holoubek, I. 2009. Which compounds contribute most to elevated airborne exposure and corresponding health risks in the western Balkans? Environ. Int., 35, 1066–1071.

Dvorská, A., Lammel, G., and Holoubek, I. 2009. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe – air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy. Atmos. Environ., 43, 1280–1287.

EEA 2013. European Union enmission inventory report 1990–2011 under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), Technical Report No. 2013/10, European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen.

Foday, M., Jaward, F. M., Farrar, N. J., Harner, T., Sweet­man, A. J., and Jones, C. K. 2004. Passive air sam­pling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and poly­chlorinated naphthalenes across Europe. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 23, 1355–1364.

Gioia, R., Sweetman, A. J., and Jones, K. C. 2007. Coupling passive air sampling with emission estimates and chemical fate modelling for persistent organic pollutants (POPs): a feasibility study for Northern Europe. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 2165–2171 (+ supplementary material).

Guidances for Air Emission Regulation. 2002. Limitation of air pollution from installations. Environmental Guide­lines, No. 1. 2002/87-7972-035-8/pdf/87-7972-036-6.PDF (accessed 23.03.2015).

Halse, A. K., Schlabach, M., Eckhardt, S., Sweetman, A., Jones, K. C., and Breivik, K. 2011. Spatial variability of POPs in European background air. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1549–1564.

Harner, T., Shoeib, M., Diamond, M., Stern, G., and Rosen­berg, B. 2004. Using passive air samplers to assess urban–rural trends for persistent organic pollutants. 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 4474–4483.

Jaagus, J. and Kull, A. 2011. Changes in surface wind direc­tions in Estonia during 1966–2008 and their relation­ships with large-scale atmospheric circulation. Estonian J. Earth Sci., 60, 220–231.

Jaward, F. M., Farrar, N. J., Harner, T., Prevedouros, C., Sweetman, A. J., and Jones, C. K. 2003. Atmospheric PBDEs and PCNs across Europe: results of passive sampling programme. Organohalogen Compounds, 62, 1–4.

Jaward, F. M., Farrar, N. J., Harner, T., Sweetman, A. J., and Jones, C. K. 2004a. Passive air sampling of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides across Europe. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 34–41.

Jaward, F. M., Farrar, N. J., Harner, T., Sweetman, A. J., and Jones, C. K. 2004b. Passive air sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated naphthalenes across Europe. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 23, 1355–1364.

Kabral, N., Pauklin, T., and Teinemaa, E. 2012. Õhusaaste kauglevi seire ja uuringud. Eesti Keskkonnauuringute Keskus, Leping 4-1/39, Tallinn.

Keevallik, S. and Soomere, T. 2008. Shifts in early spring wind regime in North-East Europe (1955–2007). Climate Past, 4, 147–152.

Klánová, J., Čupr, P., and Holoubek, I. 2006. Application of passive sampler for monitoring of POPs in ambient air. Part II: pilot study for development of the monitoring network in the Central and Eastern Europe (MONET_CEEC). RECETOX MU Brno. RECETOX–TOCOEN REPORTS, 319.

Klánová, J., Čupr, P., Holoubek, I., Borůvková, J., Přibylová, P., Kareš, R. et al. 2009. Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Africa. J. Environ. Monitor., 11, 1952–1963.

Kohoutek, J., Holoubek, I., and Klánová, J. 2006. Methodo­logy of passive sampling. TOCOEN, s.r.o.Brno, RECETOX MU Brno. RECETOX–TOCOEN REPORTS, 300.

Kohv, N., Heintalu, H., Mandel, E., and Link, A. 2012. Estonian Informative Inventory Report 1990–2010. Submitted under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Estonian Environment Information Centre.

Kohv, N., Heintalu, H., Mandel, E., and Link, A. 2013. Estonian Informative Inventory Report 1990–2011. Submitted under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Estonian Environment Information Centre.

Kull, A. and Laas, A. 2003. Sustainable management of wind resources in coastal areas in Estonia. In Sustainable Planning and Development. The Sustainable World (Beriatos, E., Brebbia, C. A., Coccossis, H., and Kungolos, A., eds), pp. 69–78. WIT Press, Southampton, Boston.

Kumar, K., Priya, M., Sajwan, K., Kõlli, R., and Roots, O. 2009. Residues of persistent organic pollutants in Estonian soils (1964–2006). Estonian J. Earth Sci., 58, 109–123.

Lassen, C., Hansen, E., Jensen, A. A., Olendrzyński, K., Kolsut, W., Żurek, J. et al. 2003. Survey of dioxin sources in the Baltic Region. Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 10, 49–56.

Miluskaite, A., Klánová, J., Holoubek, I., Rimselyte, I., and Kvietkus, K. 2008. Persistent organic pollutants in Lithuania: assessment of air and soil contamination. Lithuanian Journal of Physics, 48, 357–366.

Mõts, K., Maasikmets, M., Teinemaa, E., Vainumäe, K., Lehes, L., Atumäe, T., and Kimmel, V. 2013. European Aerosol Conference 2013, Prague. Digital Handbook EAC 2013. (accessed ).

Müür, J. 1996. Plant protection products use in Estonia. In Estonian Environment 1995, pp. 66–68. Estonian Environmental Information Centre, Tallinn.

Nordic. 1999. Nordic Environmental Research Programme for 1993–1997. Final Report and Self-Evaluation. TemaNord Environment, 548, 136–140.

Pribylova, P., Kares, R., Boruvkova, J., Cupr, P., Prokes, R., Kohoutek, J. et al. 2012. Levels of persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of Central and Eastern Europe. Atmos. Pollut. Res., 3, 494–505.

Quass, U., Pulles, T., and Kok, H. 2004. The DG Environment project “Dioxin Emissions in Candidate Countries”: scope, approach and first results. Organohalogen Compounds, 66, 878–883.

Roots, O. 1992. Interpreting observations on the transport and wet deposition of airborne pollutants over the Baltic Sea and West-Estonian islands. AMBIO, 21, 321–322.

Roots, O. 2004. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), poly­chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzo­furans (PCDF) in oil shale and fly ash from oil shale-fired power plant in Estonia. Oil Shale, 21, 333–339.

Roots, O. and Sweetman, A. 2007. Passive air sampling of persistent organic pollutants in two Estonian monitor­ing stations. Oil Shale, 24, 483–494.

Roots, O., Holoubek, I., Cupr, P., Klanova, J., Kallis, A., and Kuningas, K. 2008. Air and soil pollution. Part 1: Organochlorine pesticides in the north- and north-eastern part of the Estonia. Ecological Chemistry, 17, 88–92 (St. Petersburg University and THESA).

Roots, O., Roose, A., Kull, A., Holoubek, I., Čupr, P., and Klánová, J. 2010. Distribution pattern of PCBs, HCB and PeCB using passive air and soil sampling in Estonia. Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 17, 740–749.

Roots, O., Zitko, V., Kumar, K. S., Sajwan, K., and Loganathan, B. G. 2011. Contamination profiles and possible trends of organohalogen compounds in the Estonian environment and biota. In Global Con­tamination Trends of Persistent Organic Chemicals (Loganathan, B. G. and Lam, P. K.-S., eds), pp. 305–333. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Sajwan, K., Kumar, K., Roots, O., Kõlli, R., Movery, H., and Loganathan, B. 2008. Persistent organochlorines and brominated diphenyl ethers in soil collected from rural and urban Estonia. Organohalogen Compounds, 70, 2474–2477.

Schleicher, O., Jensen, A., Roots, O., Herrmann, T., and Tor­dik, A. 2004a. Dioxin and PAH emissions from a shale oil processing plant in Estonia. Organohalogen Compounds, 66, 1665–1671.

Schleicher, O., Jensen, A., Roots, O., Herrmann, T., and Tordik, A. 2004b. Dioxin emission from two oil shale fired power plants in Estonia. Organohalogen Com­pounds, 66, 4089–4095.

Schleicher, O., Roots, O., Jensen, A. A., Herrmann, T., and Tordik, A. 2005. Dioxin emission from two oil shale fired power plants in Estonia. Oil Shale, 22, 563–570.

Sellström, U., Egeback, A. L., and McLachlan, M. S. 2009. Identifying source regions for the atmospheric input of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea. Atmos. Environ., 43, 1730–1736.

Shoeib, M. and Harner, T. 2002. Characterization and comparison of three passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 4142–4151.

Škarek, M., Čupr, P., Bartoš, T., Kohoutek, J., Klánová, J., and Holoubek, I. 2007. A combined approach to the evaluation of organic air pollutants – a case study of urban air in Sarajevo and Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Sci. Total Environ., 384, 182–193.

UNEP. 2002a. Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances. Europe Regional Report. Geneva.

UNEP. 2002b. Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances. Mediterranean Regional Report. Geneva.

Back to Issue