eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Proceeding cover
of the estonian academy of sciences
ISSN 1736-7530 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-6046 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 1.045

Raytraced images for testing the reconstruction of fibre orientation distributions; pp. 128–136

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/proc.2012.2.05

Marika Eik, Heiko Herrmann


The orientation distribution of fibres is relevant to the properties of a number of different kinds of fibrous materials from many fields like biology and engineering, including short fibre reinforced composites. The Persistence of Vision Raytracer (PoV-Ray) is a program for creating photorealistic images using raytracing. We discuss a sort of ``creative misuse'' of this program in science, because it was originally developed as an artistic software. However, the ability to create virtual images of virtual parts, test the image recognition software that is used to measure the fibre orientation distribution, and compare the results with the known distibution is a huge step forward. In this article the focus is on slicing/photometry, but computed-tomography-like images or microscope images could be produced as well and used to test segmentation and skeletonization algorithms.


  1. Abràmoff, M. D., Magalhães, P. J., and Ram, S. J. Image processing with imagej. Biophotonics International, 2004, 11(7), 36–42.

  2. Grünewald, S. Performance-Based Design of Self-Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universiteit Delft, 2004. URL http://repository. (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

  3. Bronstein, I. N., Semendjajew, K. A., Musiol, G., and Muehlig, H. Handbook of Mathematics. Springer, 5th edition, 2007.

  4. Herrmann, H. and Eik, M. Some comments on the theory of short fibre reinforced materials. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci., 2011, 60, 179–183.

  5. R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2011. URL (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

  6. Sekhon, J. S. Matching: Multivariate and Propensity Score Matching with Balance Optimization, 2010. URL R package version 4.7-11 (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

  7. Delignette-Muller, M. L., Pouillot, R., Denis, J.-B., and Dutang, C. Fitdistrplus: Help to Fit of a Parametric Distribution to Non-Censored or Censored Data, 2010. R package version 0.1-3.

  8. Venables, W. N. and Ripley, B. D. Modern Applied Statistics with S. Springer, New York, fourth edition, 2002.

  9. Stephenson, A. G. evd: Extreme value distributions. R News, 2002, 2(2), 31–32. URL (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

10. Pouillot, R. and Delignette-Muller, M.-L. Evaluating variability and uncertainty in microbial quantitative risk assessment using two r packages. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2010, 142(3), 330–340.

11. Adler, D. and Murdoch, D. rgl: 3D Visualization Device System (OpenGL), 2010. URL R package version 0.91 (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

12. Wuertz, D. et al., and see the SOURCE file. fMultivar: Multivariate Market Analysis, 2009. URL R package version 2100.76 (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

13. Dimitriadou, E., Hornik, K., Leisch, F., Meyer, D., and Weingessel, A. e1071: Misc Functions of the Department of Statistics (e1071), TU Wien, 2011. URL R package version 1.5-25 (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

14. Poncet, P. modeest: Mode Estimation, 2010. URL R package version 1.14 (accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

15. Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (Version 3.6). Persistence, Retrieved from (computer software, accessed 2 Dec. 2011).

Back to Issue