A three-dimensional mathematical model of the 300 t/d gas full circulation oil shale retort is developed to investigate the flow-thermo-pyrolysis behaviors in the retorting process in this work. The velocity of reheated recycled gas decreases gradually from the wall regions toward the central regions of the retort on the same horizontal surface, and the velocity of oil shale is just the opposite. In the pre-heating and retorting stages, the average temperature of gases is about 30 °C higher than that of oil shale on the same level, and the temperatures of gas and oil shale both decrease gradually from the wall regions to the three central regions, which results in that the pyrolysis reaction of oil shale gradually diffuses from the former regions to the latter regions during the downward-moving process. The results also illustrate that oil shale particles larger than 50 mm and smaller than 20 mm should be mixed with 20–50 mm oil shale particles at a proper ratio rather than being fed into the retort directly, to enhance oil yield and the thermal efficiency of the retort.
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