DETERMINATION OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN SHALE OIL LIQUID; pp. 179–187Full article in PDF format | https://doi.org/10.3176/oil.2019.2S.08
The result of quantitative determination of selected non-hydrocarbon elements present in shale oils produced by pyrolysis of oil shales from El-Lajjun, Attarat Umm Ghudran, Al-Wehda dam and Al-Sultani deposits is presented. Fischer Assay analysis of oil shales indicated their water content to range from 2.4 to 2.9 wt%, liquid shale oil amount to vary between 5.44 and 15 wt%, spent shale to be in the range 78–90.93 wt% and gaseous loss from 1.03 to 4.0 wt%. Distillation of shale oils showed comparable volume percent distilled with temperature. Seventeen non-hydrocarbon elements were quantified using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The detected elements were: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), tin (Sn), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn). The concentrations of these elements depended on oil shale deposit location. The elements concentration ranges determined were the following: As 2.11–2.59 ppm, B 0.57–0.58 ppm, Cd 5.00–6.13 ppm, Cr 1.78–2.47 ppm, Ni 8.91–11.10 ppm, V 2.29–0.887 ppm, antimony (Sb) 1.43–1.52 ppm, molybdenum (Mo) 0.42–0.78 ppm, Zn 10.5–12.93 ppm, Se 1.79–1.91 ppm and Sr 0.78–0.94 ppm.
1. Al-Ayed, O. S. Distillation curves under the influence of temperature and particle size of Ellajjun oil shale. Proceedings of the International Green Energy Conference (IGEC-2005), Waterloo, Ontario, (Canada), 12‒16 June 2005, Vol 37, Issue 40, Paper no. IGEC-1-ID06.
2. Khraisha, Y. H. Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: experiment and kinetic analaysis. Energ. Source, 2000, 22(4), 347‒353.
3. Al-Ayed, O. S., Matouq, M. Influence of pyrolysis environment on liquid product and sulfur of oil shale. Energ. Source., Part A, 2009, 31(8), 679‒686.
4. Al-Harahsheh, S., Al-Ayed, O., Amer, M., Moutq, M. Analysis of retorted water produced from partial combustion of Sultani oil shale. J. Environ. Protect., 2017, 8(9), 1018‒1025.
5. Al-Harahsheh, A., Al-Ayed, O., Al-Harahsheh, M., Abu-El-Halawah, R. Heating rate effect on fractional yield and composition of oil retorted from El-lajjun oil shale. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 2010, 89(2), 239‒243.
6. Al-Ayed, O. S. Variable reaction order for kinetic modeling of oil shale pyrolysis. Oil Shale, 2011, 28(2), 296‒308.
7. Al-Ayed, O. S., Al-Harahsheh, A., Khaleel, A. M., Al-Harahsheh, M. Oil shale pyrolysis in fixed-bed retort with different heating rates. Oil Shale, 2009, 26(2), 139‒147.
8. Neto, A., Thomas, S., Bond, G., Thibault-Starzyk, F., Ribeiro, F., Henriques, C. The oil shale transformation in the presence of an acidic BEA zeolite under microwave irradiation. Energ. Fuel., 2014, 28(4), 2365‒2377.
9. Mazur, R. Yu., Koldaev, A. A., Tsoy, L. A., Danilova, E. A., Osinskaya, N. S., Rustamov, A. I., Tsoy, V. I. The problems of metals contents determination in oil shales. International Conference “Nuclear Science and its Application”, Samarkand, Uzbekistan, September 25‒28, 2012, Section III, 356‒357.
10. Hu, F., Liu, Z., Meng, Q., Song, Q., Xie, W. Characteristics and comprehensive utilization of oil shale of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation in the southern Songliao Basin, NE China. Oil Shale, 2017, 34(4), 312‒335.
11. Al-Harahsheh, A., Al-Otoom, A., Al-Harahsheh, M., Allawzic, M., Al-Adamatb, R., Al-Farajat, M., Al-Ayed, O. The leachability propensity of El-Lajjun Jordanian oil shale ash. Jordan Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2012, 4 (Special Publication, Number 2), 29‒34.
12. Bai, J. R., Song, K. T., Chen, J. B. The migration of heavy metal elements during pyrolysis of oil shale in Mongolia. Fuel, 2018, 225, 381‒387.
13. Gondal, M. A., Hussain, T., Yamani, Z. H., Baig, M. A. Detection of heavy metals in Arabian crude oil residue using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Talanta, 2006, 69(5), 1072‒1078.
14. Pereira, J. S. F., Moraes, D. P., Antes, F. G., Diehl, L. O., Santos, M. F. P., Guimarães, R. C. L., Fonseca, T. C. O., Dressler, V. L., Flores, E. M. M. Determination of metals and metalloids in light and heavy crude oil by ICP-MS after digestion by microwave-induced combustion. Microchem. J., 2010, 96(1), 4‒11.
15. Hufnagel, H., Shmitz, H., El-Kaysi, K. Investigation of the El-Lajjun Oil Shale Deposits. BGR, Technical Cooperation Project No. 7821655. NRA and Fed. Inst. of Geosc. and /Nat. Res. Hannover, 1980.
16. Al-Harahsheh, A., Al-Harahsheh, M., Al-Otoom, A., Allawzi, M. Effect of demineralization of El-lajjun Jordanian oil shale on oil yield. Fuel Process. Technol., 2009, 90(6), 818–824.
Back to Issue