Combustion reaction kinetics of char from in-situ or ex-situ pyrolysis of oil shale; pp. 392–409Full article in PDF format | https://doi.org/10.3176/oil.2019.3.03
Shale oil sludge is a hazardous by-product of hydrocarbon production that needs an effective and safe degradation. Co-pyrolysis with oil shale is a promising method to efficiently render the sludge non-toxic. Pyrolysis of the mixture of oil shale and shale oil sludge was studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The synergistic pyrolysis parameters were calculated using the coefficient of mutual influence f and the relative error of the root mean square (RMS). Experiments on co-pyrolysis were conducted through measuring the gaseous product and semi-coke by using an infrared (IR) analyzer, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and a specific surface area (SSA) analyzer separately. Pyrolysis kinetics was obtained by the Coats-Redfern (CR) method. The synergistic analysis showed the increasing sludge content to advance the pyrolysis of the mixed sample during the process. The surface morphology and amount of micropores of the mixture varied with increasing sludge proportion. The activation energy (E) of the mixture was gradually reduced with the degree of the reaction, while it slowly increased as the reaction proceeded to third stage and the frequency factor gradually decreased with the depth of the reaction. Therefore, the co-pyrolysis had an optimum reaction temperature interval and the degree of reaction was related to the chemical reaction between the reactants.
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