ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1984
 
Oil Shale cover
Oil Shale
ISSN 1736-7492 (Electronic)
ISSN 0208-189X (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.934

LIQUEFACTION OF NİĞDE-ULUKIŞLA OIL SHALE: THE EFFECTS OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON THE CONVERSION OF LIQUEFACTION PRODUCTS; pp. 336–353

Full article in PDF format | https//doi.org/10.3176/oil.2017.4.03

Authors
OZLEM ESEN KARTAL, SERHAT AKIN, BERNA HASÇAKIR, HÜSEYİN KARACA

Abstract

In this paper, the direct liquefaction of Turkish Niğde-Ulukışla oil shale in noncatalytic and catalytic conditions was studied. The effects of pressure, tetralin/oil shale ratio, catalyst type and concentration, reaction time and temperature and oil shale/waste paper ratio on the process were investigated. It was found that tetralin/oil shale ratio had no considerable effect on the total and liquefaction products conversions under the non­catalytic conditions. Fe2O3, MoO3, Mo(CO)6, Cr(CO)6 and zeolite were used as catalysts in catalytic liquefaction. The highest total and liquefaction products conversions were obtained using MoO3 as catalyst at a concentration of 9% by weight. Reaction temperature of 400 °C and reaction time of 90 minutes were chosen according to obtained liquefaction results. Co-liquefaction experiments were performed using waste paper. Both the total and oil + gas conversions were increased to a considerable extent by the application of the co-liquefaction process. According to gas chromato­graphic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, the liquid product from the liquefaction process of oil shale under catalytic conditions of experiment 22 consisted mainly of naphthalene and its derivatives and polycyclic hydro­carbon such as indene and its derivatives.


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