eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1984
Oil Shale cover
Oil Shale
ISSN 1736-7492 (Electronic)
ISSN 0208-189X (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.934


Full article in PDF format |



This work investigated the kinetic parameters of the thermal decom­position of Estonian kukersite oil shale (OS) organic part in air atmo­spheres at various oxygen-nitrogen ratios. During oil shale combustion, two combustion phases were recognized but could not be separated. Thermo­gravimetric analysis (TGA) of oil shale combustion was conducted in nitrogen-based gases at different oxygen concentrations (5–50% O2) and heating rates (1, 10, 30 and 50 K/min). The authors modeled oil shale devolatilization and char combustion at different oxygen concentrations by using a discrete activation energy model. The process could be described by four parallel independent reactions. The activation energies were 105–134 kJ/mol. The combustion rate was found to be dependent on oxygen partial pressure. The power variables of the oxygen concentration for the reaction models were optimized and compared against a unity base case. Using these data, oil shale devolatilization and char combustion in nitrogen-based environments were modeled.


1. Soone, J., Doilov, S. Sustainable utilization of oil shale resources and comparison of contemporary technologies used for oil shale processing. Oil Shale, 2003, 20(3), 311–323.

2. Siirde, A. Oil shale – global solution or part of the problem? Oil Shale, 2008, 25(2), 201–202.

3. FE032: Capacity and Production of Power Plants. Est. Stat., 2017. (accessed February 10, 2017).

4. Roos, I., Soosaar, S., Volkova, A., Streimikene, D. Greenhouse gas emissioon reduction perspectives in the Baltic States in frames of EU energy and climate policy. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2012, 16(4), 2133–2146.

5. Dyni, J. R. Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits. Oil Shale, 2003, 20(3), 193–252.

6. Vandenbroucke, M., Largeau, C. Kerogen origin, evolution and structure. Org. Geochem., 2007, 38(5), 719–833.

7. Altun, N ., Hiçyilmaz, C., Hwang, J.-Y., Suat Bağci, A., Kök, M. V. Oil shales in the world and Turkey; reserves, current situation and future prospects: A review. Oil Shale, 2006, 23(3), 211–227.

8. Konist, A., Pihu, T., Neshumayev, D., Siirde, A. Oil shale pulverized firing: boiler efficiency, ash balance and flue gas composition. Oil Shale, 2013, 30(1), 6–18.

9. Pihu, T., Konist, A., Neshumayev, D., Loosaar, J., Siirde, A., Parve, T., Molodtsov, A. Short-term tests on firing oil shale fuel applying low-temperature vortex technology. Oil Shale, 2012, 29(1), 3–17.

10. Plamus, K., Soosaar, S., Ots, A., Neshumayev, D. Firing Estonian oil shale of higher quality in CFB boilers – environmental and economic impact. Oil Shale, 2011, 28(1S), 113–126.

11. Konist, A., Pihu, T., Neshumayev, D., Külaots, I. Low grade fuel – oil shale and biomass co-combustion in CFB boiler. Oil Shale, 2013, 30(2S), 294–304.

12. Pihu, T., Konist, A., Neshumayev, D., Loo, L. Molodtsov, A., Valtsev, A. Fullscale tests on the co-firing of peat and oil shale in an oil shale fired circulating fluidized bed boiler. Oil Shale (in the press).

13. Pihu, T., Konist, A., Neshumayev, D., Loo, L., Veinjärv, R. Combustion of Fuel Mixtures in Oil Shale Fired CFBC and PC Boilers. Presentation at International Oil Shale Symposium 2016, Tallinn, Estonia, 2016.

14. Loo, L., Maaten, B., Siirde, A., Pihu, T., Konist, A. Experimental analysis of the combustion characteristics of Estonian oil shale in air and oxy-fuel atmospheres. Fuel Process. Technol., 2015, 134, 317–324.

15. Burnham, A. K., Braun, R. L. Global kinetic analysis of complex materials. Energ. Fuel., 1999, 13(1), 1–22.

16. Jamaluddin, A. S., Truelove, J. S., Wall, T. F. Modeling of coal devolatilization and its effect on combustion calculations. Combust. Flame,1985, 62(1), 85–89.

17. Anthony, D. B., Howard, J. B., Hottel, H. C., Meissner, H. P. Rapid devolatilization and hydrogasification of bituminous coal. Fuel, 1976, 55(2), 121–128.

18. Sundararaman, P., Merz, P. H., Mann, R. G. Determination of kerogen activation energy distribution. Energ. Fuel., 1992, 6(6), 793–803.

19. Kök, M. V., Pamir, M. R. Comparative pyrolysis and combustion kinetics of oil shales. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 2000, 55(2), 185–194.

20. Kök, M. V., Pokol, G., Keskin, C., Madarász, J., Bagci, S. Combustion characteristics of lignite and oil shale samples by thermal analysis techniques. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2004, 76(1), 247–254.

21. Kök, M. V., Iscan, A. G. Oil shale kinetics by differential methods. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2007, 88(3), 657–661.

22. Liu, Q. Q., Han, X. X., Li, Q. Y., Huang, Y. R., Jiang, X. M. TG-DSC analysis of pyrolysis process of two Chinese oil shales. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2014, 116(1), 511–517.

23. Jiang, X. M., Cui, Z G., Han, X. X., Yu, H. L. Thermogravimetric investigation on combustion characteristics of oil shale and high sulphur coal mixture. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2006, 85(3), 761–764.

24. Yan, J., Jiang, X., Han, X., Liu, J. A TG–FTIR investigation to the catalytic effect of mineral matrix in oil shale on the pyrolysis and combustion of kerogen. Fuel, 2013, 104, 307–317.

25. Han, X. X., Jiang, X M., Cui, Z. G. Mathematical model of oil shale particle combustion, Combust. Theor. Model., 2006, 10(1), 145–154.

26. Aboulkas, A., El Harfi, K. Study of the kinetics and mechanisms of thermal decomposition of Moroccan Tarfaya oil shale and its kerogen. Oil Shale, 2008, 25(4), 426–443.

27. Yörük, C. R., Meriste, T., Trikkel, A., Kuusik, R. Oxy-fuel combustion of Estonian oil shale: kinetics and modeling. Energy Procedia, 2016, 86, 124–133.

28. Liu, Y., Wang, C., Che, D. Ignition and kinetics analysis of coal combustion in low oxygen concentration. Energ. Source. Part A, 2012, 34(9), 810–819.

29. Li, Q., Zhao, C., Chen, X., Wu, W., Li, Y. Comparison of pulverized coal combustion in air and in O2/CO2 mixtures by thermo-gravimetric analysis. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 2009, 85(1–2), 521–528.

30. Bai, F., Sun, Y., Liu, Y. Thermogravimetric analysis of Huadian oil shale combustion at different oxygen concentrations. Energ. Fuel., 2016, 30(6), 4450–4456.

31. Konist, A., Valtsev, A., Loo, L., Pihu, T., Liira, M., Kirsimäe, K. Influence of oxy-fuel combustion of Ca-rich oil shale fuel on carbonate stability and ash composition. Fuel, 2015, 139, 671–677.

32. Goldfarb, J. L., D’Amico, A., Culin, C., Suuberg, E. M., Külaots, I. Oxidation kinetics of oil shale semicokes: reactivity as a function of pyrolysis temperatuure and shale origin. Energ. Fuel., 2013, 27, 666–672.

33. Di Blasi, C. Combustion and gasification rates of lignocellulosic chars. Prog. Energ. Combust., 2009, 35(2), 121–140.

34. Han, X., Kulaots, I., Jiang, X., Suuberg, E. M. Review of oil shale semicoke and its combustion utilization. Fuel, 2014, 126, 143–161.

35. Murphy, J. J., Shaddix, C. R. Combustion kinetics of coal chars in oxygenenriched environments. Combust. Flame, 2006, 144, 710–729.

36. Beeston, G. Kinetics of coal combustion: the influence of oxygen concentration on the burning-out times of single particles. J. Phys. Chem-US, 1963, 67(6), 1349–1355.

37. Bews, I. M., Hayhurst, A. N., Richardson, S. M., Taylor, S. G. The order, Arrhenius parameters, and mechanism of the reaction between gaseous oxygen and solid carbon. Combust. Flame, 2001, 124(1–2), 231–245.

38. Vamvuka, D., Kakaras, E., Kastanaki, E., Grammelis, P. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of biomass residuals mixtures with lignite. Fuel, 2003, 82(15–17), 1949–1960.

39. Sfakiotakis, S., Vamvuka, D. Development of a modified independent paralleel reactions kinetic model and comparison with the distributed activation energy model for the pyrolysis of a wide variety of biomass fuels. Bioresource Technol., 2015, 197, 434–442.

40. Yang, J., Zhang, X., Zhao, H., Shen, L. Non-linear relationship between combustion kinetic parameters and coal quality. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. A, 2012, 13(5), 344–352.

41. Branca, C., Di Blasi, Global kinetics of wood char devolatilization and combustion. Energ. Fuel., 2003, 17(6), 1609–1615.

Back to Issue