INTERPRETATION OF GAMMA-RAY LOGS OF THE STRATIFIED OIL SHALE SEAM IN THE ATTARAT UM GHUDRAN DEPOSIT, CENTRAL JORDAN; pp. 340–356Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/oil.2016.4.03
The study analyses gamma-ray logging data (NGAM) collected by the Attarat Power Company (APCO; a subsidiary of Enefit) about 16 coring boreholes drilled in its exploration area in the Attarat Um Ghudran oil shale (OS) deposit, central Jordan during 2008–2013. Data are compared with lithostratigraphic information that is based on the visual and chemical description of cores. The original natural gamma radiation data were not corrected for the (unspecified) drill hole diameter or casing, thus, the amplitudes of signals were incomparable. The study analyses the raw data in order to produce a master log that could be used for stratigraphic purposes within the Attarat Um Ghudran and, possibly, the neighbouring deposits in future. The creation of a master log is based on the data about 16 individual logs and stratigraphic descriptions. It was possible as the deposit is monoclinally layered, and there exist radiogenic anomalies of primary sedimentation origin. A master log was produced by comparing the averaged signals (with radiuses of 1 and 2.5 m) with each other and producing a binary (bar code-like) log based on their relationship. Such a method describes wavelengths of natural gamma radiation intensity for preference, without considering its absolute values. Interpretation was tested comparing gamma-ray logs and stratigraphic data about three drill holes. The results confirmed geologically determined stratigraphic boundaries of layers with reasonable accuracy (the standard error of predicted depths £ 0.76 m). The method enables one to partly replace the coring-sampling-laboratory testing complex with a more cost-effective percussion drilling followed by gamma-ray logging.
1. Independent Statistics and Analysis. U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2014. URL: http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/country.cfm?iso=JOR (accessed Aug 12, 2015).
2. Hrayshat, E. S. Oil shale – an alternative energy source for Jordan. Energ. Source. Part A, 2008, 30(20), 1915–1920.
3. Knaus, E., Killen, J., Biglarbigi, K., Crawford, P. An overview of oil shale resources. In: Oil Shale: A Solution to the Liquid Fuel Dilemma, ACS Symposium Series, 2010, 1032, 3–20.
4. Al-Zoubi, A., Ben Avraham, Z. Structure of the earth’s crust in Jordan from potential field data. Tectonophysics, 2002, 346, 45–59.
5. Alqudah, M., Hussein, M. A., van der Boorn, S., Podlaha, O. G., Mutterlose, J. Biostratigraphy and depositional setting of Maastrichtian - Eocene oil shales from Jordan. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 2015, 60, 87–104.
6. Alali, J., Salah, A. A., Yasin, S. M., Omari, W. A. Geological Survey Administration. Mineral Status and Future Opportunity. Oil Shale. Report, 2006. URL: http://www.nra.gov.jo/images/stories/pdf_files/Oil_Shale.pdf (accessed Apr 22, 2014).
7. Sunna, B. F. Attarat Um Ghudran Oil Shale Deposit. Natural Resources Authority, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 1984 (unpublished report).
8. Hamarneh, Y. Oil Shale Resources Development in Jordan. Report, 1988. URL: http://www.nra.gov.jo/images/stories/pdf_files/Updated_Report_2006.pdf (accessed Apr 22, 2014).
9. Voolma, M., Soesoo, A., Puura, V., Hade, S., Aosaar, H. Assessing the geochemical variability of oil shale in the Attarat Um Ghudran deposit, Jordan. Est. J. Earth Sci., 2016, 65(2), 61–74.
10. Puura, V., Soesoo, A., Voolma, M., Hade, S., Aosaar, H. Chemical composition of the mineral matter of the Attarat Um Ghudran oil shale, Central Jordan. Oil Shale, 2016, 33(1), 18–30.
11. Hutton, A. C. Petrographic classification of oil shales. Int. J. Coal Geol., 1987, 8(3), 203–231.
12. Sharma, P. V. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.
13. Lehmann, K. Environmental corrections to gamma-ray log data: Strategies for geophysical logging with geological and technical drilling. J. Appl. Geophys., 2010, 70(1), 17–26.
14. Almogi-Labin, A., Flexer, A., Honigstein, A., Rosenfeld, A., Rosenthal, E. Biostratigraphy and tectonically controlled sedimentation of the Maastrichtian in Israel and adjacent countries. Revista Española de Paleontologia, 1990, 5(1), 41–52).
15. Meilijson, A., Ashckenazi-Polivoda, S., Ron-Yankovich, L., Illner, P., Alsenz, H., Speijer, R. P., Almogi-Labin, A., Feinstein, S., Berner, Z., Püttmann, W., Abramovich, S. Chronostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous high productivity sequence of the southern Tethys, Israel. Cretaceous Res., 2014, 50, 187–213.
16. Schneider-Mor, A., Alsenz, H., Ashckenazi-Polivoda, S., Illner, P., Abramovich, S., Feinstein, S., Almogi-Labin, A., Berner, Z., Püttmann, W. Paleoceanographic reconstruction of the late Cretaceous oil shale of the Negev, Israel: Integration of geochemical, and stable isotope records of the organic matter. Palaeogeogr., Palaeocl., 2012, 319-320, 46–57.
17. Moh’d, B. K., Powell, J. H. Uranium distribution in the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary Belqa Group, Yarmouk Valley, Northwest Jordan. Jordan Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2010, 3(1), 49–62.
18. Swanson, V. E. Oil Yield and Uranium Content of Black Shales. Geological Survey Professional Paper 356-A, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1960.
19. Tzifas, I. Tr., Godelitsas, A., Magganas, A., Androulakaki, E., Eleftheriou, G., Mertzimekis, T. J., Perraki, M. Uranium-bearing phosphatized limestones of NW Greece. J. Geochem. Explor., 2014, 143, 62–73.
20. Goldhammer, T., Brüchert, V., Ferdelman, T. G., Zabel, M. Microbial sequestration of phosphorus in anoxic upwelling sediments. Nat. Geosci., 2010, 3, 557–561.
Back to Issue